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TSNAMI

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Ipshita Ghosh

on 28 June 2014

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Transcript of TSNAMI

GROUP 2- DHANVIN 23
IPSHITA 24
ADITYA 4
GEETIKA 6
RITWIK 13
SAI PRADEEP 1
SHREERAM
SAKHSHI 14
KSHITIJ 26
INDIA
JAPAN
magnitude- 9.0
energy released - 480 megatons
size of quake- 5th largest
peak tsunami height-40.5 meters
far inland- 10 km
area covered- 561 sq km
time sendai residents had before the hit - 8 min
% of people evecuated after warning- 42%
estimate cost of disaster- 300 billion us dollars
building destroyed-45700
people killed and missing - 15828 deaths 3760 missing


magnuitude- 9.0
energy released-equivalent to the explosion of 475,000 kilotons of TNT
potition- 4th largest since 1900
far in land-2000 meters
no of people killed - 226,000
total international aid promised-7 billion us dollars

how tsunamis occur?
Tsunamis can be caused by a few different means:
1) the down drop or upthurst of the Earth’s crust which results in an earthquake; 2) a large-scale undersea landslide; 3) a submarine volcanic eruption of a certain degree; or potentially, 4) a large meteor impact at sea. The vast majority of tsunamis result from earthquakes
.

how earthquakes cause tsunami ?? how volcanos cause tsunami??







How landslides cause tsunami??


TSUNAMI
WATER-A WONDER LIQUID
PRECAUTIONS AND MEASURES

Water covers 71% of the Earth's surface,and is vital for all known forms of life. On Earth, 96.5% of the planet's water is found in seas and oceans, 1.7% in groundwater, 1.7% in glaciers and the ice caps of Antarctica and Greenland, a small fraction in other large water bodies, and 0.001% in the air as vapor, clouds.
Only 2.5% of the Earth's water is freshwater, and 98.8% of that water is in ice and groundwater. Less than 0.3% of all freshwater is in rivers, lakes, and the atmosphere, and an even smaller amount of the Earth's freshwater (0.003%) is contained within biological bodies and manufactured products.
Water on Earth moves continually through the water cycle of evaporation and transpiration (evapotranspiration), condensation, precipitation, and runoff, usually reaching the sea. Evaporation and transpiration contribute to the precipitation over land.

1. Avoid Inundation Areas: Site Buildings or infrastructure away from hazard area or locate on a high point.
2. Slow Water: Forests, ditches, slopes, or berms can slow down waves and filter out debris. The success of this method depends on correctly estimating the force of the tsunami.
3. Steering: Water can be steered to strategically placed angled walls, ditches and paved roads. Theoretically, porous dikes can reduce the impact of violent waves.
4. Blocking : Walls, hardened terraces, berms and parking structures can be built to block waves.he house and household in a wide community context such as whether it is a majority or minority situation, the conflict situation and ownership issues.
5.Plantation of more trees near the coastline which act as a natural barrier against tsunamis by decreasing its intensity.
6.Awarness must be propagated in various forms such as media,campaigning,etc which will revolve around how to act in the case of a tsunami.

WATER POLLUTION
Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans, aquifers and groundwater), very often by human activities.

facts on water pollutionWater pollution occurs when pollutants (particles, chemicals or substances that make water contaminated) are discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without enough treatment to get rid of harmful compounds. Pollutants get into water mainly by human causes or factors.

The Aftermath
Estimated cost of the disaster: US$300 billion (biggest in World history) 

Number of buildings destroyed: 45,700 

Number of automobiles and trucks destroyed: 230,000 

Number of people killed and missing: 15,828 deaths and 3,760 people missing 

Number of children killed: 378 deaths and 158 children missing. 

Number of children orphaned: 236 children 



Number of people killed: Latest figures indicate at least 226,000 dead, including 166,000 in Indonesia, 38,000 in Sri Lanka, 16, 000 in India 5300 in Thailand and 5000 foreign tourists
Number of people injured: Over 500,000
Potential additional deaths from infectious diseases 150,000
Number of people affected: Up to 5 million people lost homes, or access to food and water
Number of children affected : Around a third of the dead are children, and 1.5 million have been wounded, displaced or lost families
Number of people left without the means to make a living: One million
Number of World Heritage Sites destroyed or damaged: Five, including: the Old Town of Galle in Sri Lanka, the Tropical Rainforest of Sumatra in Indonesia and the Sun Temples of Konarak in India
Estimated cost of tsunami early warning technology in Indian Ocean:$20 million
Estimated cost of aid and reconstruction following tsunami: $7.5 billion
Total international aid promised to Tsunami-ravaged nations $7 billion


The resulting tsunami was given various names, including the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, South Asian tsunami, Indonesian tsunami, the Christmas tsunami and the Boxing Day tsunami.

Tsunamis are not always colossal waves when they come into the shore. In fact, "... most tsunamis do not result in giant breaking waves (like normal surf waves at the beach that curl over as they approach shore). Rather, they come in much like very strong and very fast tides (i.e., a rapid, local rise in sea level)." (USGS website) Nevertheless, there is destruction of life and of property by floating debris and impact of water. The tsunami produces a series of rushing waves and also a series of withdrawals.



The Aftermath
Estimated cost of the disaster: US$300 billion (biggest in World history) 

Number of buildings destroyed: 45,700 

Number of automobiles and trucks destroyed: 230,000 

Number of people killed and missing: 15,828 deaths and 3,760 people missing 

Number of children killed: 378 deaths and 158 children missing. 

Number of children orphaned: 236 children 



The Earthquake

Magnitude of the quake: 9.0 

Energy released by the quake: 480 megatons (a magnitude 9.0 earthquake releases as much energy as 32,000 magnitude 6.0 earthquakes) 

Energy released by the quake compared to the nuclear attack on Hiroshima: 600,000,000 times the the energy of the Hiroshima bomb 

Size of the quake: 5th biggest in World history 

Duration of strong shaking from the quake: up to 5 minutes 

There were four warning earthquakes (foreshocks) in the days leading up the the quake of magnitude: 6.0, 6.1, 6.1 and 7.2 

Number of aftershocks: more than 900 (aftershocks from a 9.0 magnitude quake can last for years) 

 




Effect on GDP and Employment

Number of people killed: Latest figures indicate at least 226,000 dead, including 166,000 in Indonesia, 38,000 in Sri Lanka, 16, 000 in India 5300 in Thailand and 5000 foreign tourists
Number of people injured: Over 500,000
Potential additional deaths from infectious diseases 150,000
Number of people affected: Up to 5 million people lost homes, or access to food and water
Number of children affected : Around a third of the dead are children, and 1.5 million have been wounded, displaced or lost families
Number of people left without the means to make a living: One million
Number of World Heritage Sites destroyed or damaged: Five, including: the Old Town of Galle in Sri Lanka, the Tropical Rainforest of Sumatra in Indonesia and the Sun Temples of Konarak in India
Estimated cost of tsunami early warning technology in Indian Ocean:$20 million
Estimated cost of aid and reconstruction following tsunami: $7.5 billion
Total international aid promised to Tsunami-ravaged nations $7 billion


Disaster and humanitarian crisis statistics

Earthquake and tsunami statistics
Time of main tremor: 0758 local time on 26 December 2004, (0058 GMT)
Magnitude: Magnitude 9 "megathrust"
Scale of slippage: 30 kilometres below the seafloor, a 1200 km stretch of the Indian plate was thrust up to 20 metres under the Burma plate, raising the seafloor by several metres
Historical ranking: The fourth largest since 1900 and the world's biggest since a magnitude 9.2 earthquake struck Alaska's Prince William Sound in 1964
Epicentre locality: 250 km south-south-east of Banda Aceh, Indonesia and 1600 km north-west of Jakarta
Energy released: Equivalent to the explosion of 475,000 kilotons of TNT, or 23,000 Hiroshima-sized atomic bombs
Height and speed of tsunamis: In the open ocean, just 50 centimetres high but travelling at up to 800 km/h. However, the wave s grew and slowed as the sea shallowed towards coasts. Waves were up to 10 metres on the coastline of Sumatra near the epicentre, 4 metres in Thailand, Sri Lanka and Somalia
Distance waves travelled inland: Up to 2000 metres
Number of countries damaged: 13, including Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Thailand, Myanmar, Malaysia, The Maldives and Somalia




Indian tsunami
2004

The Tsunami

Peak tsunami height: 40.5 meters (133 feet) at Miyako — that's equivalent to a 13 storey building. The Japanese tsunami scale considers a 3 meter tsunami to be a major tsunami. 

How far the tsunami made it inland: up to 10 km (6 miles) at Sendai 

Total land area covered by the tsunami:: 561 kilometers sq (217 sq miles) 

Total area of icebergs the tsunami wave broke off of Antarctica: 125 square kilometers 

Time Sendai residents had before tsunami hit: around 8 minutes 

Number of people who evacuated after the tsunami warning in the worst hit areas: only 42% 

Designated tsunami evacuation sites that were hit by the wave: at least 101 


Seas have likewise been an obstacle at first, then a convenient medium for transport along coastlines, and finally a medium for intercontinental transport. Small seas in turn can contain tsunamis to a certain degree and absorb their energy via friction on the bottom or surrounding land. This is particularly true if such seas have small openings to other bodies of water, restricting the flow, islands, and other features that obstruct fast water movement.

Mountains, swamps, deserts and ice fields are among the clearest examples of natural barriers. Rivers are a more ambiguous example, as they may obstruct large-scale human movement across them (especially by armies) but may facilitate smaller-scale movement along them in boats,
once some of the people in the region have developed the relevant technologies. In turn, rivers may funnel tsunamis into land and damage ports and cities often built along rivers.


The Japan tsunami was the most powerful known earthquake ever to have hit Japan, and the fifth most powerful earthquake in the world since modern record-keeping began in 1900. 
The earthquake triggered powerful tsunami waves that reached heights of up to 40.5 m(133 ft) in Myakka in Japan Iwate Prefecture, and which, in the Sendai area, travelled up to 10 km (6 mi) inland.
The earthquake moved Honshu (the main island of Japan) 2.4 m (8 ft) east and shifted the Earth on its axis by estimates of between 10 cm (4 in) and 25 cm (10 in), and generated sound waves detected by the low orbiting GOCE satellite.

The 2011 earthquake off the Pacific coast of Japan tsunami often referred to in Japan as the Great East Japan Earthquake  and also known as the 2011 Tohoku earthquake
the  Earthquake, was a magnitude 9.0  undersea mega thrust earthquake off the coast of Japan that occurred at 14:46 JST (05:46UTC) on Friday 11 March 2011, with the epicentre approximately 70 km (43 mi) east of the Oshika Peninsula of Tōhoku and the hypocenter at an underwater depth of approximately 30 km (19 mi). 

JAPAN TSUNAMI

The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was an undersea mega thrust earthquake that occurred at 00:58:53 UTC on Sunday, 26 December 2004, with an Epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. The quake itself is known by the scientific community 

2004 INDIAN OCEAN TSUNAMI

The 9.1 magnitude earthquake off the coast of Sumatra was estimated to occur at a depth of 30 km. The fault zone that caused the tsunami was roughly 1300 km long, vertically displacing the sea floor by several metre along that length. The ensuing tsunami was as tall as 50 m, reaching 5 km inland near Meubolah, Sumatra.
This tsunami is also the most widely recorded, with nearly one thousand combined tide gauge and eyewitness measurements from around the world reporting a rise in wave height, including places in the US, the UK and Antarctica. An estimated US$10b of damages is attributed to the disaster, with around 230,000 people reported dead.

1. SUMATRA, INDONASIAN- 26 DECEMBER 2004

This tsunami event is actually linked to the explosion of the Krakatau caldera volcano. Multiple waves as high as 37 m were propagated by the violent eruptions and demolished the towns of Anjer and Merak.


4.KRAKATAU, INDONASIAN- 27 AUGUST 1883

5 .Enshunada Sea, Japan - 20 September 1498
An earthquake, estimated to have been at least magnitude 8.3, caused tsunami waves along the coasts of Kii, Mikawa, Surugu, Izu and Sagami.


THE TOP FIVE TSUNAMIS

The term tsunami has its origins in the Japanese language an English equivalent is "seismic sea waves."
Tsunamis are often incorrectly interchanged with the term tidal waves which refer to high waves of water caused by changes in the flow and surge of the ocean

 


INTRODUCTION

The most common use of the term "natural barrier" is in geography, where it refers to a naturally occurring obstacle to movement, especially of people and especially at modest technological levels.
Such natural barriers can also impede the flow of tsunamis by diverting and absorbing the mechanical energy and momentum of the moving water.

TSUNAMI BARRIERS

A powerful tsunami travelling 800km per hour with 10m-high waves swept over the east coast of Japan, killing more than 18,000 people. The tsunami was spawned by an 9.0 magnitude earthquake that reached depths of 24.4km- making it the fourth-largest earthquake ever recorded.
Approximately 452,000 people were relocated to shelters, and still remain displaced from their destroyed homes. The violent shaking resulted in a nuclear emergency, in which the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant began leaking radioactive steam. The World Bank estimates that it could take Japan up to five years to financially overcome the $235 billion damages.


2.NORTH PACIFIC COAST JAPAN- 11 MARCH 2011

A magnitude 8.5 earthquake caused a series of three huge waves to strike various towns along the west coast of Portugal and southern Spain, up to 30 m high, in some places.
The tsunami affected waves as far away as Carlisle Bay, Barbados, where waves were said to rise by 1.5 m. The earthquake and ensuing tsunami killed 60,000 in the Portugal, Morocco and Spain.

3. LISBON PORTUGAL- 1 NOVEMBER 1755

Tsunamis are not always colossal waves when they come into the shore. In fact, "... most tsunamis do not result in giant breaking waves (like normal surf waves at the beach that curl over as they approach shore). Rather, they come in much like very strong and very fast tides (i.e., a rapid, local rise in sea level)." (USGS website) Nevertheless, there is destruction of life and of property by floating debris and impact of water. The tsunami produces a series of rushing waves and also a series of withdrawals.


JAPAN TSUNAMI
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