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Fallacy Project

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by

Victoria Huynh

on 28 September 2013

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Transcript of Fallacy Project

Welcome to the world of fallacies!
Pathos
An appeal to feelings and self-interest. A means of persuasion in order to evoke emotion.
Rhetorical Appeals
Logos
"Pathetic Appeal"
"Logical Appeal"
This relies on logic and reason. Logos depends on inductive and deductive reasoning. This usually includes statistics and facts to help support the argument.
Magikarp
Torchic
Ethos
"Ethical Appeal"
This refers to the source's credibility or the speaker/writer's authority.
"Colgate Total contains an antibacterial ingredient and has a unique formula that attaches to your teeth to help reduce plague. Colgate Total reduces 90% of plague germs that cause gingivitis. Ordinary toothpastes don't."
"The Force"
This is a television commercial that released during the Super Bowl XLV in 2011. It involves a little boy dressed up as Darth Vader trying to move objects inside his house using the force. He failed and grew more and more disappointed each attempt. When his father came home, he rushed over to the car to use the force once again and finds that he has succeeded! However, he doesn't know that his father helped him using a button on his key chain.
Volkswagen Passat 2012
According to Allure, Miranda Cosgrove states:
"I use the Neutrogena Wave Power Cleanser. It's mini and you can take it with you when you travel. I've been using Neutrogena Pink Grapefruit Acne Wash for about two months and my skin looks a lot better. I moisturize twice a day-- in the morning and before I go to sleep. Sometimes I forget to put it on at night, and I notice the next day that my skin is dry."
Inductive Reasoning
Makes broad generalizations from specific observations
Even if all the premises of the statement is true, the conclusion may still be proven false by further evidence.
Deductive Reasoning
Basically the opposite of Inductive; it takes general observations and results in particular/specific conclusions
A valid argument using deductive reasoning is when the conclusion necessarily follows the premises.
Inductive arguments conclude more than the premises allow.
Appeal to Pity
Appeal to Pity persuades using emotions such as sympathy rather than evidence.
Argument Backed
Force or threat of force is used to justify a conclusion
By A Stick
Arguing by Association
Also known as the "Guilt by Association"
Discredits an idea based upon disfavored people/groups associated with the idea
This argues AGAINST an idea, not in favor of it.
Argument from Ignorance is an argument for or against a statement on the basis of a lack of evidence against or for it.
Begging the Question
Also known as circular argument
Has premises in which the truth of the conclusion is claimed/assumed
Contradictory Premises
Establishes a premise that contradicts the earlier premise made
False Alternative
This fallacy assumes that only one alternative exists in a certain situation when obviously there are exceptions.
False Analogy
uses analogies to support or go against an argument, but the conclusion isn't supported due to the differences in the comparison
Occurs when one recalls sequential events as evidence that the first caused the second
“correlation is not causation”
Hasty Generalization
This is when a conclusion is drawn about a population based on a sample that is not large enough.
Poisoning the Well
To make an ad hominem by giving the audience adverse information about the opponent from the start in order to make your claim more acceptable or discount your opponent's credibility.
Shifting the Meaning of a Key Term
This is an argument that uses the meaning of words or sentences in two different senses.
The assumption that if one thing allowed, it will only be the first in a downward spiral of events.
Sweeping Generalization
An argument based on an unqualified generalization.
An argument that suggests one is correct if they go along with the "crowd".
This fallacy offers a poorly supported claim about what might have happened in the past or future if the circumstances were different.
Hypothesis Contrary to the Fact

-AmericanBlog by John Aravosis
-ABC News
Shameful Argument
Appeals to an authority in one field regarding something in another field in which that authority has no more standing than anybody else.
That's the end of our adventure!
Full transcript