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Transcript of Mary Ainsworth
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Bowlby Bibliography Mary Ainsworth was born in 1913 in Glendale, Ohio. She was the oldest of three sisters.
At the age of 15, Ainsworth read "Character and the Conduct of Life," which sparked her interest in psychology.
She attend the university of Toronto. She earned a B.A., a M.A. and a Ph. D.
She married Leonard Ainsworth in 1950
She died in 1999 The Strange Situation Two aspects of the child's behavior are observed:
The amount of exploration the child engages in during the time period.
The child's reactions to the departure and return of his caregiver.
There are three categories the children fall under:
Successful outcomes are defined as
Unsuccessful outcomes are defined as
Anxious-ambivalent insecure attachment
anxious-avoidant insecure attachment Success? Procedure:
Parent and infant are introduced to the experimental room.
Parent and infant are alone. Parent does not participate while infant explores.
Stranger enters, converses with parent, then approaches infant. Parent leaves inconspicuously.
First separation episode: Stranger's behavior is geared to that of infant.
First reunion episode: Parent greets and comforts infant, then leaves again.
Second separation episode: Infant is alone.
Continuation of second separation episode: Stranger enters and gears behavior to that of infant.
Second reunion episode: Parent enters, greets infant, and picks up infant; stranger leaves inconspicuously. "Secure Attachment: A child who is securely attached to its caregiver:
will explore freely while the caregiver is present
will engage with strangers
will be visibly upset when the caregiver departs,
happy to see the caregiver return.
The child will not engage with the stranger if the caregiver is not in the room.
Anxious-Ambivalent Insecure Attachment: A child with an anxious-resistant attachment style:
anxious of exploration and of strangers, even when the caregiver is present.
When the caregiver departs, the child is extremely distressed.
The child will be ambivalent when she returns and will seek to remain close to the caregiver, but will be resentful, and also resistant when the caregiver initiates attention.
Anxious-Avoidant Insecure Attachment: A child with an anxious-avoidant attachment style:
will avoid or ignore the caregiver and show little emotion when the caregiver departs or returns.
The child will not explore very much, regardless of who is there.
Strangers will not be treated very differently from the caregiver.
There is not much emotional range displayed regardless of who is in the room or if it is empty." Bowlby believed that there are four distinguishing characteristics of attachment:
Proximity Maintenance - The desire to be near the people we are attached to.
Safe Haven - Returning to the attachment figure for comfort and safety in the face of a fear or threat.
Secure Base - The attachment figure acts as a base of security from which the child can explore the surrounding environment.
Separation Distress - Anxiety that occurs in the absence of the attachment figure.
Ainsworth expanded on these theories. John Bowlby Although her studies was about children, she never had children of her own.
She lived in Africa
Her work has been cited by over 7,000 social science sources, with over 2,500 of these citing her seminal work on patterns of infant attachment.
Her work has been highly regarded.
The Strange Situation has become one of the most commonly used procedures in child development research.
The strange situation has become the foundation for studies of attachment behaviors and correlates in rhesus monkeys, chimpanzees, and dogs used as pets and guide animals for the blind.
A fourth category was added by Mary Main called "Disorganized/disoriented attachment" Facts Mary was his student.
Bowlby wanted to figure the patterns and correlation of family interaction involved in physical and mental development.
He focused on attachment issues and how they were transmitted from one generation to the other.
"In his development of attachment theory he propounded the idea that attachment behavior was essentially an evolutionary survival strategy for protecting the infant from predators." - Wikipedia Bowlby This has a clear correlation with what we are doing because it explains the development and influence of children. How this relates to class Nikki Lantigua