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Methods and Approaches to Music Education: Chapter 9
Transcript of Methods and Approaches to Music Education: Chapter 9
to Music Education Introduction Article summarizes the different methods
of music education that are commonly used. Benedict warns that each
need to be fully understood
and de-generalized for educators
to properly implement the ideas
contained in each method Opening Quote What is a Method? Must consider philosophical grounding for each
Blind following of any method for teaching music to "train" students limits musical growth
Must know the reasons "why" Emile Jaques-Dalcroze Eurhythmics? Eurhythmics! Important points Dalcroze's Eurhythmics were only part of the equation
He felt that musical perception, viewed as a cognitive reaction, among students was incomplete
He felt that the "whole organism" needed to be engergized
Harmonization between mind and body
No worry or inhibitions
Would serve a higher purpose of having students "find themselves" and their place in society
Process Realization of musical concepts comes from movement utilizing ear training (solfege), improvisation, and eurhythmics (the second kind) Application Originated with College-Age students
Multiple ages now
Facility on an instrument was integral to the approach for teachers (piano, likely) Content-Specific Issues Saw Ear-Training, Eurhythmics and improv as seperate threads
Did not want them delivered in isolation
Three are broken down into teachable units Zoltan Kodály Carl Orff Shinichi Suzuki Edwin Gordon Important Points Kodály was connected with Bartok and the "populist" movement in Hungary
Sharply opposed to capitalism and great estates
Committed to social welfare and loved music
wanted to provide a framework and classification system for music
Went his own way, deciding that singing was central to musical engagement
At the time he had no interest in developing a teaching method, and he did not "make up" much of the method at all, but borrowed and compiled pieces of others Process Tonic solfa = Guido d'Arezza
Melodic Hand Signs = John Curwen
Movement = Dalcroze
Rhythmic Syllables = Emile Chevé
Educational Grounding = Pastalozzi
Saw this as a way to transmit culture (folk songs)
Hand Signs Important Points Saw dance and music as connected
Wanted a model that students could provide their own music and create their own accompaniments
Developed wooden xylophones and metal-lophones that were accompanied by glockenspiels, recorders.
Divised many books (Schulwerk) that emerged into Berlin schools. Popularity soared and it went worldwide.
Orff was concerned that his work was being interpreted badly. Wrote 5 more books. Process No plans for implementation
Not a "method" that is perscribed
A way to engage a child in imaginative process derived some natural self-expression and interaction with music
Unstructured speech -> singing and speech -> body percussion -> non-pitched percussion instruments -> Orff instruments
Focus on consonance. Pentatonic Scales, modes, etc.
Movement is integral, almost more important than the instruments. Important Points Should not be seen as a method to learn music
Had the view that all people can learn music
Believed that the significance of character, and noble adults in a child's life are of the utmost importance. Repetition, imitation, modeling are at the heart
Guidance and help from teachers
Listening daily (multiple versions)
Attendance at concerts are a must
Expressivity and musicality are central
Note reading is delayed until necessary
(Kids learn to talk before they read)
Once a piece is perfected, it is often re-visited
No contemporary or modern music in early stages Process Important Points Calls it a method: Music Learning Theory
Have sequential and curricular learning goals
Can align with all levels and settings for music learning
At the heart is the belief that everyone is born with musical ability to some degree
Looks at variables such as socioeconomic, environment, race, religion, and concuded that none have any influence on musical aptitude from birth
Knowing their aptitude allows teacher to teach to each students individual strengths and weaknesses Process Children learn music the same way they learn languageAudiation takes place when we hear and understand music from our pastNaming tonal and rhythmic patterns (Bum, Bah) are a way to provide basis for reading and creativity and improvisation General Issues and Lingering Thoughts Nobody has a "Method" but Gordon
All are based on what it takes to "know" music, not how to "teach" it
More about ideology than philosophy. All want a music literacy, yes, but most want "good citizens" and see music as a vehicle to get there.