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Transcript of Reciprocal Teaching
tests of comprehension
maintenance of comprehension over time
ability to transfer internalized processes to classroom comprehension tests, and to new tasks necessitating summarizing, questioning, and clarifying
scores on standardized tests (p. 117). There are SIX activities for extending comprehension that "mature readers" engage in:
understanding the purposes of reading
activating relevant background knowledge
allocating attention to major content
critically evaluating content for consistency and compatibility with prior knowledge.
Self-monitoring ongoing activities to see if comprehension is being achieved.
Forming and testing myriad inferences (Palincsar, 1984, p. 120). BUT... Palincsar and Brown's (1984) study concludes that four activities can encompass and activate these six key functions of comprehension, thereby aiding "poor readers" (121). Summarizing Questioning Clarifying Predicting Having read a text, the teacher models these four activities. The teacher asks students to perform these activities - initially they may mimic the teacher or text verbatim, are shy, or form incomplete statements. Gradually, the teacher phases him or herself out, establishing students as the initiators of the four activities. Students then call on their peers and critique and refine their responses as the teacher had modeled. As the students produce more refined, thoughtful answers, the teacher raises expectations by requiring the formation of more complex questions/predictions/ summations. How does this relate to Vygotsky? Improvement in dialogue = improvement in comprehension The dialogue improves because the students come to implement the behaviors of the teacher, i.e., they are INTERNALIZING the PSYCHOLOGICAL TOOLS of a MORE KNOWLEDGEABLE OTHER that were modeled in a SOCIAL SETTING (Palincsar, 1984, p. 153). Students can successfully act as dialogue leaders because the teacher SCAFFOLDS the discussions by guiding student answers when they cannot invent their own, i.e. the teacher is operating within the ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT (Palincsar, 1984, p. 156). Teacher delegates aspects of the four roles only at the level that the students can successfully lead; as students become more competent, the teacher increases his or her demands, again implementing the concept of the ZPD (Palincsar, 1984, p. 169). References Aannemarie Sullivan Palincsar & Ann L. Brown (1984). Reciprocal teaching of
comprehension-fostering and comprehension monitoring activities, Cognition
and Instruction, 1(2), 117-125. http://www.readingrockets.org/strategies/reciprocal_teaching/ Resources Sample Lesson Plans http://www.promisingpractices.net/program.asp?programid=144 http://www.vrml.k12.la.us/graphorgan/18strat/strat/rec/recip_teach.htm http://www.eduweb.vic.gov.au/edulibrary/public/teachlearn/student/reciprocalmore.pdf Articles http://www.buddies.org/articles/Reciprcl.pdf Teaching Materials Available for Download http://www.teacher2teacherhelp.com/reading-strategies/free-downloadable-reciprocal-teaching-resources/ http://www.buzzle.com/articles/reciprocal-teaching-strategies.html Reciprocal Teaching in Action Strategies http://www.readingquest.org/strat/rt.html https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&pid=gmail&attid=0.1&thid=139d5ed3f3f7e9a1&mt=application/pdf&url=https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/?ui%3D2%26ik%3D0e0b177406%26view%3Datt%26th%3D139d5ed3f3f7e9a1%26attid%3D0.1%26disp%3Dsafe%26realattid%3Df_h7813p380%26zw&sig=AHIEtbQgHJCQGph8DqITqvc5SycxWDqGfw http://cadres.pepperdine.edu/omcadre6/BookProject/vygotsky.htm http://www.reading.org/Publish.aspx?page=bk507-3-Oczkus.pdf&mode=retrieve&D=10.1598/9780872075078.3&F=bk507-3-Oczkus.pdf&key=3458F298-87FA-42B3-B5EB-A8658A13571C Demonstration 4 Comprehension Strategies In review... Students learn how to learn! Carter, C.J. (1997). Why reciprocal teaching? Educational Leadership, 54(6), 64-69. Foster, E., Rotoloni, R.. (2005). Reciprocal Teaching: General overview of theories.. In M. Orey (Ed.), Emerging perspectives on learning, teaching, and technology. Retrieved from http://projects.coe.uga.edu/epltt/ Stricklin, K. (2011). Hands-on reciprocal teaching: A comprehension technique. The Reading Teacher, 64(8), 620-625. When a teacher actively uses reciprocal teaching in most readings required of students, reading levels increase one to two grade levels in three to six months (Stricklin, 2011, as cited in Oczkus, 2005; Spörer, Brunstein, & Kieschke, 2009). 3 Primary Roles:
Activate students’ prior knowledge before reading begins
Monitor, guide and encourage throughout the reading
(i.e. Practice scaffolding for optimizing the ZPD)
Encourage student reflection after the reading – help the students visualize the learning process Looking Closer at the Teacher's Role Modeling is KEY for a successful process Palincsar, A.S., & Herrenkohl, L.R. (2002). Designing collaborative learning contexts. Theory into Practice, 41(1), 26-32. Reciprocal teaching (RT) was designed as an interventional approach for students showing disparities between their ability to decode and comprehend text (Palincsar & Herrenkohl, 2002). Shown to be effective for courses in English, History, and Science (Palincsar and Brown, 1984, p. 147). Which strategy should go first? Does is depend on the activity? The grade level? At what point is this method no longer effective? Does that point exist? Can further research help? ...There could be a perceived lack of student creativity/synthesis... however, the more profound the questions become, might the answers be more creative/synthesized, in turn? Is this method effective for differentiation? Highlights key points
Paraphrases important content
Charts progression of ideas/plot What connections or comparisons can I make?
What is the author telling me (theme)? Identifies potentially confusing or unclear words, devices (e.g. metaphors), or arguments
Attempts to offer an answer, using context clues or other knowledge What's next?
Where is this going?
As reading continues, the predictor may discuss original guesses That time of year thou mayst in me behold
When yellow leaves, or none, or few, do hang
Upon those boughs which shake against the cold,
Bare ruin'd choirs, where late the sweet birds sang. In me thou seest the twilight of such day
As after sunset fadeth in the west,
Which by and by black night doth take away,
Death's second self, that seals up all in rest. In me thou see'st the glowing of such fire
That on the ashes of his youth doth lie,
As the death-bed whereon it must expire
Consumed with that which it was nourish'd by.
This thou perceivest, which makes thy love more strong,
To love that well which thou must leave ere long. SONNET 73
by William Shakespeare Rubric for Assessing Comprehension