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Transcript of Japanese Art
Pit dwellings Known for their technique to decorate earthenware vessels. They were a settled people and because of this they were able to create a ceramic technology. This is the oldest known culture to create ceramics. Yayoi Period 300 B.C.E. -330 C.E. Located in Kyushu Pit dwellings
Fortifications (for defense) Interactions with China and Korea brought them social and technological transformations. Near 300 B.C.E., Japan had walled towns, small kingdoms, and social structure. They developed bronze casting and loom weaving. Kofun Period 330-552 C.E. Kofun: Old Tomb The pit graves began to appear in the early third century C.E. called Tumuli. The Tumuli were uilt by horse-riding people from the Korean Penninsula and grew dramatically in the fourth century. Ceramic Scultpures (Haniwa)
Whimsical cylindrical theme
Shapes, objects, animals (deer bears, horses, and monkeys), human figures (warriors and female shamans) The largest tumulus included 20,000 haniwa for Emporer Nintoku at Sakai. Asuka and Nara Period 552-784 C.E. The area around Nara where the Japanese court resided. Japan embraced continental culture including, Chinese writing, Confucianism, and Buddhism to define their Court. Adopted forms and cites of the Chinese Court.
The permanent capital was established and modeled on the Chinese Capital.
710 C.E.-784 C.E. Capital of Nara.
794 C.E. Heian became capital. The new religion of Buddhism became accepted by the seventh century and firmly established. 794-1185 C.E. Heian Period Peace and Tranquility Period Japan's culture became much more self guided during this period. Esoteric Buddhism: Secret transmissions of teachings.
Tendai Teachings in 805 C.E. All individuals who possessed Buddha nature would be englightened.
Shingon Teachings in 806 C.E. Believe that anyone can achieve enlightenment.
Paintings and sculptures showed Buddhist deities.
Pure land beliefs.
Tale of Genji. Kamakura Period 1185-1332 C.E. Eastern Japan More positive contact with China which brought an appreciation for cultural developments such as new architectural styles to Chan (Zen) Buddhism. Architectural experimentation.
High level naturalism.
Kei portrait statues use inlaid rock crystal for the eyes (only found in Japan)
Kei School: for Japanese artistic practice.
Membership bases on familial relationships.
"School of Art" in Japan is a network of workshops tracing their origins back to the same master. The civil wars between rival warrior families brought this shogunate (military government) to overcome the Japanese imperial court. Muromachi Period 1336-1573 C.E. Distric of Kyoto The shogun maintained power to continue reigning over the country. The imperial family kept the "power" but the control was the military government. Yamato-e, native style painting included typical features like native subjects, bright mineral pigments, lack of emphasis on strong brushwork, and flatness. Yamato meaning "Japan". Shogunates with local lords as leaders of bands of samurai warriors.
Japan experienced confrontations for territory and control.
Age of Wars or Era of Warring States.
Japanese political and social institutions unstable.
Zen Buddhism brought discipline and personal responsibility.
Pictures primarily in India ink.
Broken or flung-ink style.
Tosa School and Kana School.
Tosa style with bright, contrasting color, detailed textile patterns, and thickly applied paint.
Kano style characterized with bold outlines and the presentation of objects along a vertical plane of the painting surface. Achitectural decoration became more relevant in Japanese art. Momoyama Period 1573-1615 C.E. Momoyama: Peach Blossom Hill The government was centralized for the establishment of a Japanese nation. The tea ceremony which involved the ritual preparation, serving, and drinking of green tea. It provided political or economic power to assert authority in the culture and contributed to the democratization of Japanese society.
Refined rusticity (wabi) brought the admiration of the technicals and not the monetary worth.
Taian are ceremonial tea spaces that accomodated the traditional Japanese customs: Not wearing shoes indoors and sitting on the floor. The tea ceremonies brought individuals away from the ordinary world where everyone became equal. Edo Period 1615-1868 C.E. Located in Edo which is modern Tokyo Limited the pace of social and cultural change in Japan. Expansion of population in urban centers brought literacy and a thirst for knowledge.
The Rimpa School which brought a variety of individuals into the art world. Whether practitioner or master. Characterized by vivid color, use of gold and silver, and decorative pattern.
Tarashikomi: Dropping of ink and pigments onto wet surfaces with previously applied ink and pigments.
The increasing amount of Sammurai brought for a pursuit for sensual pleasure and entertainment. Others who participated in this were educated.
Ukiyo (floating world): the best known products of the sophisticated counterculture. The subjects of these came from the realm of pleasure.
Nishiki-e (brocade pictures): Have brilliant color on quality paper using expensive pigments.
Incorporated Western perspective techniques. Throughout this period artists mix tradition with their own adaptations. Modern Japan 1868-1912 C.E. Meiji Period In the 20th century, Japan became prominent in economics, politics, and culture. Participation in World War II brought devestation, loss of life, and atomic bombings.
United States brought democratic institutions.
Japanese artists have brought Western lessons into a part of Japan's culture.
Traditional ceramics are highly valued.
Mingei: Folk pottery Contemporary Japanese art still incorporates Japanese culture from over the centuries. Bottle, Late Jamon Period,
Earthenware with incised designs. Bell (dotaku), Late Yayoi Period,
Bronze. Shaka triad, Tori Busshi,
Bronze. Taizokai (Womb World) of Ryokai Mandara,
Hanging scroll, color on silk. Detail of the priest Shunjobo Chogen,
Painted cypress wood. Broken ink landscape, Toyo Sesshu,
Hanging scroll, ink on paper. Pine Forest, Hasegawa Tohaku,
One of a pair of six-panel screens, ink on paper. Evening Bell at the Clock, from Eight Views of the Parlor series, Suzuki Harunobu,
Woodblock print. Large bowl, Hamada Shoji,
Black trails on translucent glaze. Haniwa boar,
Earthenware. Architecture Buddhist architecture was brought to Japan during these periods. The complexes included an image hall which housed sculptural icons for worship and prayer. Horyuji Temple, Nara, Japan Architecture The belief of Pure Land Buddhism was brought to all classes of Japan. The Phoenix Hall was depicted from the images of Buddha's Palace in his Pure Land. With the design of Great Chinese Palaces. (Floating weightlessness of Celestial Architecture because f light pillars, elevating wings, and above a reflective pond.) The Phoenix Hall has a bird like shape with ridgepoles that have phoenixes. The phoenixes represent imperial might. Phoenix Hall, Uji, Japan.