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Holie Novelo

on 7 August 2014

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Visual Design Elements
Six integral components used in the creation of a design:

Form and Shape
Repeated use of line, shape, color, texture or pattern
Regular rhythm
Graduated rhythm
Random rhythm
Gradated rhythm
Flow or feeling of action

Proportion and Scale
Comparative relationships between elements in a design with respect to size

3:5 ratio is known as the Golden Mean

What is Architecture?
the profession of designing buildings, open areas, communities, and other artificial constructions and environments, usually with some regard to aesthetic effect. Architecture often includes design or selection of furnishings and decorations, supervision of construction work, and the examination, restoration, or remodeling of existing buildings.
The feature in a design that attracts one’s eye – the focal point
Emphasis can be achieved through size, placement, shape, color, and/or use of lines

Vertical – Represents dignity, formality, stability, and strength
Horizontal – Represents calm, peace, and relaxation
Diagonal – Represents action, activity, excitement, and movement
Curved – Represents freedom, the natural, having the appearance of softness, and creates a soothing feeling or mood

Vertical Lines
The Empire State Building
Architect: Shreve, Lamb, and Harmon

Brandenburg Gate

Madrid, Spain

Horizontal Lines
Community Christian Church
Kansas City, MO
Architect: Frank Lloyd Wright, 1940

Diagonal Lines
Curved Lines
Color has an immediate and profound effect on a design.

Saint Basil’s Cathedral

Warm Colors
Reds, oranges, yellows

Cool Colors
Blues, purples, greens

Colors can affect how humans feel and act

Form and Shape
Form: (3D)The shape and structure of something as distinguished from its substance or material.

Shape: (2D)The two-dimensional contour that characterizes an object or area.

Form and Shape
Oriental Pearl Tower Shanghai
Architect: Jiang Huan Cheng, Shanghai Modern Architectural Design, Co.

Berlin, Germany


By incorporating the use of space
in your design, you can enlarge or reduce the visual space.

Open, uncluttered spaces
Cramped, busy spaces
Unused vs. good use of space

The surface look or feel of something

Smooth Surface – Reflects more light and therefore is a more intense color.
Rough Surface – Absorbs more light and therefore appears darker.

Smooth Texture
Glass façade of a high rise office building

Exterior metal façade of Disney Concert Hall
Los Angeles

Rough Texture
Park Guell – Barcelona, Spain Architect: Antonio Gaudí

The relative lightness or darkness of a color

Shade – Degree of darkness of a color
Tint – A pale or faint variation of a color

Downtown buildings in Bangalore, India

Visual Design Principles
Seven principles encompass an interesting design.

Proportion and scale
Parts of the design are equally distributed to create a sense of stability. Both physical and visual balance exist.

Symmetrical or formal balance
Asymmetrical or informal balance
Radial balance
Vertical balance
Horizontal balance

Symmetrical or Formal Balance

The elements within the design are identical in relation to a centerline or axis.
The Taj Mahal Mausoleum
Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India
Asymmetrical or Informal Balance

Parts of the design are not identical but are equal in visual weight.
Chateau de Chaumont
Saone-et-Loire, France

Radial Balance

Design elements radiate outward from the center.

Dresden Frauenkirche
Deresden, Germay

Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II
Milan, Italy
Architect: Giuseppe Mengoni

Vertical Balance
The top and bottom parts are equal.
Horizontal Balance
The parts on the left and right sides are equal.
Chi Lin Buddhist Temple and Nunnery
Kowloon City, Hong Kong

Hearst Castle
San Simeon, CA
Architect: Julia Morgan
Building façade
Limberg, Germany

Regular Rhythm
An element is repeated at the same repetition/interval each time.
Random Rhythm
The beats of the element are random or are at irregular intervals.
Graduated Rhythm
The repeated element is identical with the exception of one detail increasing or decreasing gradually with each repetition.

Ceiling mosaic in Park Gruell

Mosque - Egypt

Noticeably different

Can be created with
Proportion and scale

Unity is achieved by the consistent use of lines, color, material, and/or texture within a design.
Mediums in Architecture
Architecture and Technology
Issues, Concerns, and Problems in Architecture
Issues and Concerns
Architecture in the World
Egyptian Architecture
Mesopotamian Architecture
Greek Architecture
Famous European Architecture
American Architecture
Asian Architecture
Egyptian Architecture
Mesopotamian Architecture
Ziggurats were a form of temple common to the Sumerians, Babylonians and Assyrians of ancient Mesopotamia
Only priests were permitted inside the ziggurat
There are 32 known ziggurats near Mesopotamia. Four of them are in Iran, and the rest are mostly in Iraq.

Greek Architecture
American Architecture
White House- official residence and principal workplace of the President of the United States.
Was designed by Irish-born James Hoban and built between 1792 and 1800 of white-painted Aquia Creek sandstone in the Neoclassical style.
Asian Architecture
Great wall of China
built between 220–206 BC by the first Emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang.
Built to protect the Chinese Empire against intrusions by various nomadic groups or military incursions by various warlike peoples or forces.

Taj Mahal
It was built by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his third wife, Mumtaz Mahal.
Regarded as the finest example of Mughal architecture, a style that combines elements from Islamic, Persian, Ottoman Turkish and Indian architectural styles.

Architecture in the Philippines
Pre-colonial period
Spanish Colonial
American colonial period
Pre-colonial period
Nipa Hut/Bahay Kubo
The native house of the indigenous people of the Philippines before the Spaniards arrived.
It is made of anahaw and bamboo

Spanish Colonial
Bahay na Bato
constructed out of brick and stone
Excellent preserved examples of these houses of the illustrious Filipinos can be admired in Vigan, Ilocos Sur.

Quemma House,

Paco Park
a cemetery in Bagumbayan was issued in 1807, due to the outbreak of a cholera epidemic in Manila
It is where Jose Rizal was buried by the Spaniards after his execution on the Luneta
Burgos Lighthouse
This is one of the famous historical landmark in the province of Ilocos Norte

American colonial period
William Howard Taft decided that Manila should be a planned city.
He hired Daniel Burnham as his architect and city planner, a long wide, tree-lined boulevard along the bay, beginning at a park area dominated by a magnificent hotel.

Designed by Juan M. Arellano and Tomás Mapúa, the post office building was built in neoclassical architecture in 1926
The construction of this building started in 1936 and was finished before the outbreak of war in 1941.

Technology directly affected architecture by facilitating the creation of new materials with which to build - reinforced concrete, steel and glass. The new materials were inexpensive, mass produced and flexible to use. These affected the cities profoundly by allowing greater density through higher buildings.
Frank Lloyd Wright
an American architect, interior designer, writer, and educator, who designed more than 1,000 structures and completed 532.
Southwestern Pennsylvania
designated a National Historic Landmark in 1966.
Located at Upper East Side of Manhattan
Conceived as “temple of the spirit”

Guggenheim Museum
Sense of place
How do you keep a building from falling down, especially during an earthquake, a typhoon, or a terrorist attack? Architects and engineers are year by year finding innovative ways to make buildings stronger.
How do you make a building more useful? Architects continue to develop new methods of improving a building's function by rethinking traditional office arrangements, mixing disciplines, or changing a retail store's relationship to the street.
How do you measure beauty today? The most acclaimed architecture communicates the spirit of its purpose - whether it's a powerful brand image, an ideal of good government, or a way to relate to nature.
Manila Central Post Office
How does technology help improve architecture?
Some of the most innovative buildings are also the most technologically advanced, whether in their materials or the tools that help work to get done.
How do you lessen a building's impact on the environment? Reducing a building's energy consumption and making it relate to its landscape. A necessary starting point for thinking about almost every other aspect of the building, from its materials to its location to how its uses are arranged.
How do you make a monument secure? It requires creative ways of ensuring the safety of their occupants without compromising their symbolic meaning.
Sense of place
Buildings are more meaningful when they're connected to their surroundings, whether through their materials, the cultural traditions they accommodate, or the way they blend in.
The Architect
sphinx (a mythical creature with a lion's body and a human head)
The face of the Sphinx is generally believed to represent the face of the Pharaoh Khafra.
Sphinx was called Hor-em-akhet
Sa'im al-Dahr was the one who destroyed the nose of the sphinx

The Greek developed three architectural systems, called orders, each has their own distinctive proportions and detailing. The Greek orders are:
Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian.
Its massive foundations were made of limestone, and the columns were made of Pentelic marble

The architects were Iktinos and Kallikrates and it was dedicated to the goddess Athena Pallas or Parthenos
Acropolis, Greece
Great Sphinx of Giza
temple from the middle classical period of Greek art and architecture, built on the Acropolis of Athens between 421 and 405BC.
contained sanctuaries to Athena Polias, Poseidon, and Erechtheus.
Leaning tower of Pisa
Pisa, Italy
It is designed by Guglielmo and Bonanno Pisano

The tower was built in three stages over a period stretching nearly two centuries.
St. Peter’s Cathedral
Designed principally by Donato Bramante, Michelangelo, Carlo Maderno and Gian Lorenzo Bernini
a Late Renaissance church located within Vatican City
the burial site of Saint Peter

The Colosseum's original Latin name was Amphitheatrum Flavium
The Colosseum was used to host gladiatorial shows as well as a variety of other events.

Fort Santiago

Use as a defense fortress during Spanish colonization, built for Miguel Lopez de legaspi

Also called the Walled City
Construction of the defensive walls was started by the Spanish colonial government in the late 16th century to protect the city from foreign invasions.
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