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STRESS

HE ED 321
by

Siew Ping Yue

on 25 April 2013

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Transcript of STRESS

EFFECTS OF STRESS BY
Yue Siew Ping, Tessa Leng, Benita Lee Stress What causes stress? long term stress
mostly situations in which people think they cannot get out of
responsible for 6 main causes of death mainly (heart disease, accidents, cancer, liver disease, lung ailments, suicide., (Sapolsky, 1996; Schneiderman, Ironson, & Siegel, 2005)
cause of absenteeism from work, increased medical expenses, and loss of productivity (Atkinson, 2004; Schneiderman et al., 2005);
cognitive impairment, depression (Hammen, 2005;McEwen & Seeman, 1999; Schwabe & Wolf, 2010; Wang, 2005);
aggression and relationship problems (Bodenmann, Meuwly, Bradbury, Gmelch, & Ledermann, 2010) Symptoms of Stress
Change in behavior
Moody/easily irritated
Sleeping too much/too little
Lost of appetite/overeating


Stomachaches
Headaches


Worried
Confused
Annoyed
Angry ROLE OF MINDSET DEFINITION
of STRESS considered as the experience of facing challenges in order to reach one's goals.. (Carver & Connor-Smith, 2010). TYPES OF STRESS :- Acute stress
Episodic acute stress
Chronic stress What is it? Acute stress most frequent stress among humans
also known as short term stress
can be thrilling and exciting at times Chronic stress Stress is said to be a mindset.
That is, a dependency on the way a person thinks which may influence positive or negative outcomes.
There are two types of mindsets -
stress-is-enhancing, whereby the person takes stress in a positive manner to perform better.
stress-is debilitating, whereby the person takes stress to be an inhibiting factor when performing a task. ROLE OF NERVOUS SYSTEM The autonomic nervous system branches into 2, which is parasympathetic nervous system and sympathetic nervous system. Under normal conditions, the parasympathetic nervous system kick in over after a stressful situation has passed, thus calming the body. However, in most people, the sympathetic nervous system is constantly firing, which results is the inability to calm down hence causing stress. Effects of stress on Health Stressed children are more vulnerable to problems:
sleep disturbances (including nightmares and bed wetting), skin diseases, and infections.

Physical conditions with a genetic basis—like asthma, allergies, and diabetes—can be adversely affected by childhood stress" (Lewis, p.4).

Chronic psychological stressors may lead to changes in the cardiovascular function and the development of coronary artery disease (CAD) (Ho et al., 2010 and Marazziti et al., 2007). The health effects of stress involve mainly autonomic, cardiovascular and immune systems (Farias et al., 2011; Ho et al., 2010; Sood et al., 2012).

Exposure to physical or psychological stress can affect disease outcomes in immune-related disorders such as viral and bacterial infections and allergy (Kemeny and Schedlowski, 2007). Aim: To investigate the association between stress at work and the metabolic syndrome.

Method
The Whitehall II study recruited 10308 participants from 20 civil service departments in London from 1985 to 1988 (phase 1). Surveys consisted of postal questionnaires in 1989 (phase 2), 1991-3 (phase 3, which also included a clinical examination), 1995 (phase 4), and 1997-9 (phase 5, which also included a clinical examination). Results :
A relationship was found between exposure to work stressors over 14 years and risk of the metabolic syndrome. Employees with chronic work stress were more than twice as likely to have the syndrome than those without work stress.

Conclusions
Stress at work is an important risk factor for the metabolic syndrome. The study provides evidence for the link between psychosocial stressors from everyday life and heart disease. Effect Of Stress On Family Children who say their parent is always stressed are more likely to report having a great deal of stress themselves than those who say their parents are never stressed (17 percent vs. 2 percent)
One third of the teens(33%) say they feel sad; 43 percent of teens say they feel worried; and 38 percent of teens say they feel frustrated when their parents are stressed As a result:
More than half of parents say that it takes some or a great amount of effort to get their families to eat healthy foods (56 percent) and to get their families to be physically active (54 percent).

Teens report that they turn to sedentary behaviors to make themselves feel better when they are really worried or stressed, CASE STUDY Role Of Mindset Effects on Health Case Study The study sample included 243 Mexican American youth: 121 youth who had an older pregnant adolescent sister and 122 youth
who had an older adolescent sister who had never been pregnant

5 different set of questionnaire and a short in person interview was used in accesing Mothers’ harsh treatment toward siblings, Mother—sibling conflict, Sibling drug use, Sibling defiant behaviors, Sibling depressive symptoms Method Aim This study examined how increased stress in Latino families following an adolescent’s childbearing
impacts family relationships and the adolescent’s siblings Result Conclusion The study indicate that an adolescent’s childbearing
leads to increases in family stress, and that increased family stress leads to increases in mothers’ harsh parenting and mother–sibling conflict, which, in turn, lead to subsequent increases in siblings’ problem behavior. It shows that families with a pregnant (parenting) adolescent

has higher family disruption
mothers’ harsh treatment toward siblings was higher
siblings engaged in more drug use and delinquent behaviors

Results showed significant indirect effects were found through mother–sibling conflict for sibling drug use and delinquency, defiant behaviors, and depressive symptoms, and a marginally significant indirect effect was found for school disciplinary problems • Negative behaviors
 Change in behavior
 Moody/easily irritated
 Sleeping too much/too little
 Lost of appetite/overeating
• Physical
 Stomachaches
 Headaches
• Words often used when stressed
 Worried
 Confused
 Annoyed
 Angry • Negative behaviors Physical •Words often used Ways to manage stress Case Study
Aim : The role of yoga in improving the signs and symptoms of stress and anxiety.

Method :literature searches.
Two searches were conducted
One with the keywords ‘yoga’ and ‘anxiety’., Another with keywords ‘yoga’ and ‘stress’.
Limited to human subjects, English language, clinical trials and randomized controlled trials.
Cross referencing articles.
Total 35 studies that met the criteria.
there are no recognized pharmalogical treatment for stress

Perceived Stress Scale(PSS) was used to measure the level of stress they received. PSS was the endpoints in assessing the role of yoga in reducing stress

Significant improvement in heart rate and lower PSS scores after a 16-week yoga intervention and an increase in PSS scores in the deep relaxation control group( Kjellgren et al.)
Decreased in PSS scores for firefighters who experience stress as a result from their work(Cowen et al.)
Subjects who participated in the African dance group had almost similar PSS scores with subjects who participated in the yoga interventions and greater reduction compared to the controlled group.(West et al.)
The use of yoga is equivalent to or greater than oher techniques used to reduce stress. Results Conclusion
The data suggests the benefits of yoga as an intervention for stress.
Yoga is safe as it does not involve drugs and improve symptoms of stress

Exercise
Moderate amount of exercise has benefits for our physical health(Myers 2004)
Production of mood- boosting neurotransmitters ( e.g. endorphins, norepinephrine)
Strengthen heart, increase blood flow, lowering blood pressure and reaction to stress.
Yoga
mainly focusing on the breathing techniques, strengthening exercises and meditation Conclusion Case Study References Case Study Episodic acute stress prolonged period of acute stress
results from having too many things to juggle at a time Crum, A.J. , Salovey,P. & Achor,S. Rethinking stress: The role of mindsets in determining the stress response. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2013, Vol. 104, 4, 716–733. Retrieve April 4,2013 from EBSCOhost database

Chandola,T. & Marmot,M. Chronic stress at work and the metabolic syndrome: prospective study British Medical Journal 2006;332:521 Retrieve April 7,2013 from Google Scholar

East, P.L & Chien, C.N. Stress in Latino Families Following an Adolescent’s Childbearing:Effects on Family Relationships and Siblings. Journal of Family Psychology, Vol 27(2), Apr, 2013. pp. 183-193. Retrieve April 4,2013 from EBSCOhost database

(2010 ,November 9)APA Survey Raises Concern about Health Impact of Stress on Children and Families. American Psychological Association. Retrieve April10,2013 from http://www.apa.org

Alvord,M. & Palmiter, D.J. Identifying signs of stress in your children and teens. American Psychological Association. Retrieve April10,2013 from http://www.apa.org

Li,A.W , Goldsmith & Carroll-Ann, W. The Effects of Yoga on Anxiety and Stress. Alternative Medicine Review. Mar2012, Vol. 17 Issue 1, p21-35. 15p. 7 Charts. Retrieve April 19,2013 from EBSCOhost database

Miller, L.H. & Smith, A.D. Stress: The different kinds of stress. American Psychological Association, Retrieve April 21,2013 from http://www.apa.org

Greenberg,N. , Carr, J.A and Summers, C.H. Causes and Consequences of Stress. Integrative and Comparative Biology (2002) 42 (3): 508-516. Retrieve April 10, 2013 from Google Scholar Miller, L.H. & Smith, A.D. Stress: The different kinds of stress. American Psychological Association retrieve from apa.org Miller, L.H. & Smith, A.D. Stress: The different kinds of stress. American Psychological Association retrieve from apa.org Alvord,M. & Palmiter, D.J. Identifying signs of stress in your children and teens. American Psychological Association. Retrieve from http://www.apa.org Crum, A.J. , Salovey,P. & Achor,S. Rethinking stress: The role of mindsets in determining the stress response. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Crum, A.J. , Salovey,P. & Achor,S. Rethinking stress: The role of mindsets in determining the stress response. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2013, Chandola,T. & Marmot,M. Chronic stress at work and the metabolic syndrome: prospective study British Medical Journal 2006 Chandola,T. & Marmot,M. Chronic stress at work and the metabolic syndrome: prospective study British Medical Journal 2006 Chandola,T. & Marmot,M. Chronic stress at work and the metabolic syndrome: prospective study British Medical Journal 2006 Chandola,T. & Marmot,M. Chronic stress at work and the metabolic syndrome: prospective study British Medical Journal 2006 APA Survey Raises Concern about Health Impact of Stress on Children and Families. American Psychological Association. Retrieve from http://www.apa.org APA Survey Raises Concern about Health Impact of Stress on Children and Families. American Psychological Association. Retrieve from http://www.apa.org East, P.L & Chien, C.N. Stress in Latino Families Following an Adolescent’s Childbearing:Effects on Family Relationships and Siblings Journal of Family Psychology East, P.L & Chien, C.N. Stress in Latino Families Following an Adolescent’s Childbearing:Effects on Family Relationships and Siblings.Journal of Family Psychology Li,A.W , Goldsmith & Carroll-Ann, W. The Effects of Yoga on Anxiety and Stress. Alternative Medicine Review. Mar2012 Li,A.W , Goldsmith & Carroll-Ann, W. The Effects of Yoga on Anxiety and Stress. Alternative Medicine Review. Mar2012 Li,A.W , Goldsmith & Carroll-Ann, W. The Effects of Yoga on Anxiety and Stress. Alternative Medicine Review. Mar2012 Li,A.W , Goldsmith & Carroll-Ann, W. The Effects of Yoga on Anxiety and Stress. Alternative Medicine Review. Mar2012 Stress is inevitable be it positive or negative. However, it is wise for each individual to manage their stress level so that it will not be detrimental to their health. As we are aware of the types of stress and the effects of “overdose” of stress, we are also aware that there are ways to reduce stress instead of continuously receiving stress The End Survey conducted by American Psychological Association shows that
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