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Unit 1 Atomic Structure

Utah State Integrated Science 7 Atoms, molecules, density, particle motion
by

Cassie Grether

on 2 November 2015

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Transcript of Unit 1 Atomic Structure

Atomic Structure
What is MATTER?
Objective: Students will be able to understand the structure of matter.

III. Elements Compounds & Molecules
IV. Energy and Matter
B. Is matter energy?
Nuclear fusion creates a lot of energy!
Burning gas creates mechanical energy in cars.
1. What is energy?
a) Energy is not matter, it is
power
that can be used to perform activity like making your body move, driving a car, making the sun glow, cooking food.

b) Some examples:
light
(radiation),
heat
(thermal),
sound
,
electricity

I. What is matter?
A. Matter
has mass and takes up volume
(aka space); matter is something physical; everything you touch, smell, taste is made up of matter;

1. Matter
is made of very small things called
atoms.
Everything that has mass is made up of atoms.
There are about 7 billion billion billion atoms making up one person!
2. Atoms are the
building blocks
of everything tangible.
Everything
that is a thing
is made up of atoms.
a) All atoms are made up of 3
tiny particles
we can't directly see. All atoms have:
(1)
nucleus
- the center of an atom made up of 2 particles: 1.
protons
and 2.
neutrons
tightly bound together
(a)
Most of the mass
(weight) of an atom exists
inside the nucleus
of an atom.
Lets talk about models!
This is not what we mean by a scientific model!
All of these things are models, and all of these models do share something in common.
All of these models show an idea or concept. They might not be the exact real thing, but they help us understand what that real thing might be like.
A model can be anything from a full sized replica, small version, to a drawing, or conceptual idea. A model can be a computer program that runs sets of data to predict an outcome.
We use models like a representative of something that we are studying.
But models change over time. Why do you think that is?
2. History of
the Atomic Model
atomos
you couldn't divide
particles
named electrons
center or nucleus
electrons paths
planets orbiting
buzzing
designs or paths
a) Current model: The electron cloud model
(1) Electron Cloud Model: Electrons travel in a space around the center of the atom. Electrons move about in
spinning patterns
and waves, and not in flat planed orbits like planets.

(2) Each creation of a model
built
on the
work
and
knowledge
of scientists that came before. Science constantly
builds
on the work of others.

b) How did scientists know matter is made up of atoms?
(1) Scientists used
experiments
and
observations
to gather data. They then used
inferences
to make conclusions.

c) How has technology helped support the atomic theory?

(1) Technology like
really powerful microscopes and computers
allows us to detect the atom itself!

d) Limits of drawn models:
(1) We live in a 3D world, but drawings are flat. Atoms are also in constant movement. We can't draw movement very well.
1.Compound: a type of molecule where two or more different elements are bonded to each other. All compounds are also molecules, but not all molecules are compounds.
A. Elements: a specific type or variety of atom; example: gold, helium, hydrogen, or oxygen.


Example: Calcium is an element with 20 protons. If it gained 59 more protons it would now be gold.
Elements are a
pure substance.
2. Each element of the same type has exactly the same amount of PROTONS in its nucleus.
If an elements gets more protons it changes into a
different element.
1. There are many
different elements, but all elements are atoms.
a) Analogy: all elements are atoms just as all Asians are humans.
B. Molecule the smallest combination of elements that make up a substance that exists independently.
3. Periodic Table of Elements: lists elements in rows and columns in order of similarities and number of protons in each element.
Carbon has 6 protons
A. There are 4 basic states of matter:
1. SOLID
2. LIQUID
3. GAS
4. PLASMA
a)
high energy state
where molecules are free of one another and move about bouncing around
b)
fill any container size
with no definite volume
c) gases are easily compressed
4. Plasma
D. What happens when energy is put into the atoms?
Atoms & molecules get more energy.
This makes them vibrate faster moving them apart. This movement loosens the bonds between molecules.

When they move apart enough they change phase.
A. Phase change is when matter goes form one state to another. Example: ice melts, to a liquid or liquid evaporates to a gas.
B. See graphic below.
freezing
condensation
deposition
vaporization
melting
sublimation
ionization
recombination
2. Before any bonds can be broken and atoms move from solid, liquid or gas, extra energy must be absorbed by the matter.
3. This extra energy
DOES NOT
raise the temperature, but is used to
BREAK BONDS BETWEEN MOLECULES.
Unit 1
(2) most atoms have negatively charged (3.)
electrons
which move around the nucleus because they are attracted to the
positive protons.
3.
Atoms
are so small we cannot directly see them.
In fact, they are so small 5 million million atoms could fit on the head of this pin!
4. Bohr Model
Turn to your group partners and discuss.
1. All
matter has energy,
but it is
NOT
energy itself.
2. Everything in the Universe can be described as either
matter or energy.
II. History of our atomic models
A. If we cannot directly see the atom how do we know anything about it?
1. Many scientists contributed to this knowledge by detecting different particles
Scotch Tape Demo & Static Electricity
Bending Water (1:37 min)
Rutherford's Gold Foil XP (3:27 min)
IBM able to "view" and manipulate on the atomic scale using an electron scanning microscope.
A Boy And His Atom: The World's Smallest Movie (1:33 min)
Moving Atoms: Making The World's Smallest Movie (4:55 min)
B. Dalton's Atomic Theory
1. 4 main ideas of atomic theory:
a)
All matter = atoms.
Atoms are the
smallest particles
that make up an
element
. They
cannot be divided
into smaller particles. They also cannot be created or destroyed.
b) All atoms of the same element are
alike
. Atoms of different elements are different and have different masses.
c) Atoms join together to form compounds. A given compound always consists
of the same kinds of atoms
in the same ratio.
d) Atoms are mostly
empty space
. An atom is made up of particles which are very small compared to the size of the atoms.
Blow up an atom to the size of a baseball. The nucleus (the largest part of the atom) would be the size of one skin cell.
Can someone think of one on their own?
Molecule of water is one oxygen and two hydrogen.
Two oxygen atoms bonded together would be a molecule, but two hydrogen and one oxygen atoms makes a molecule and a compound.
B. Every element can be in any of the four states of matter. Example: nitrogen (a gas you breathe) can be a liquid, solid or even a plasma.

C. Characteristics of solid, liquid, gas, and plasma
solid
liquid
gas
plasma
1. Solid
c) Atomic Level:
atoms are packed in tightly
and are stuck to one another. Atoms
vibrate in place
or do not move at all.
a) have a definite shape and volume

b) cannot be compressed or squashed
Very useful for building structures
d) expands slightly when heated
Let's come up with some examples of solids!
e) Examples:
f) Diagram
a)
take the shape of whatever container they are in
c) atoms are close together and can be compressed or compacted slightly
b) can be easily separated
2. Liquids
d)
atoms can move easily past one another
movement of water when boiling
What would happen to a solid if you tried to slide the molecules past one another?
e) expand slightly when heated
f) Examples:
Let's come up with some examples of liquids!
g) Diagram:
a)
Extremely high energy state;
so much so that electrons have the energy to leave the atom. Electrons float around in the plasma like an electron soup.

d) expand a lot when heated
e) Examples:
f) Diagram
1.
Energy allows
matter to be in different states. If matter has low energy it will be frozen as a solid. If matter has the most energy, it will be energetically a plasma.
b) expand to extremes when heated
c) very easily compressed
d) molecules fly about energetically
f) Diagram
V. Phase Change
Look at the example in your notes. What is changing between the different states? What is causing the phase change?
C. There are 8 phase changes of matter: recombination, ionization, condensation, evaporation, melting, freezing, sublimation, deposition

1. Energy added --> phase change goes up; Energy lost --> phase change goes down

Density
1. Volume
Density
Mass
What was mass again?
C. Density
how compact something is;
a measurement of how close the individual molecules are to one another.
Density
Ruling the Universe since
III. Earth materials and Density
A. Density sorts everything in the Universe as well as here on Earth.
The size of an object doesn't determine its density. How closely packed the molecules in it does.
Which crowd is more dense?
Which is more dense?
Wood block
Metal block
Which is more dense?
Copper wire
Copper pipe
Density has two components: mass and volume.
Volume: how much space something takes up.
a) We can find volume 2 ways:
(1) calculate
it using a mathematical formula:
Volume rectangular prism = l x w x h
Volume cylinder = π x r x h
Volume sphere = 4/3 π x r

2
3
Water displacement.... in a bath tub.
(b) To calculate: take ending water level and minus the beginning water level; example 50 ml - 32 ml = 18 ml volume.
(4) Two units for volume that we will use are ml and cm .
1 ml =
1
cm .
3
3
1. How to calculate:
MASS ÷ Volume
(I heart density)
If we know how dense something is we can compare it with any other dense object no matter what size it is.
Will it float?
Depends, what's its density?
When things are the same size we can tell if something is more dense because it will be heavier.
2. Units of density are units of
mass/volume or
grams/ml

3. Density helps us compare masses of different sizes;

F. If something is
less than
1.00 g/cm it will be less dense than water and will
float.
3
G. If something is
more dense
than 1.00 g/cm it will be more dense than water and it will sink.
3
Density sorts all matter into layers. Less dense things will be on top. More dense things will be on the bottom.
The Density Song
Three parts
Density... density
Density, density, how compacted.
Sorting into layers
Less dense on the top.
B. Water
1. A river will sort sand, clay, silt and even boulders. What it can come depends on its speed.
2. The slower the water moves the less the river can carry. The faster the water moves, the more it can carry.
3. Density sorts materials in the ocean too. At the beach sandy particles exist because the waves are not strong enough to drag the sand away. Deeper in the water where the water is calm, muds exists.
4. Density doesn't just sort the sediments. Density sorts the water too. Ocean has layers. Cold, salty water sinks to the bottom. Warm fresh water floats on top.

Depth in km
Density in g/cm
3
Depth in km
Pressure in atm
14.6 billion BC
States and Phase Change Practice
Which state?
From gas to this.
Which state?
From gas to this.
Which phase change?
From liquid to this.
Which phase change?
Which phase change?
What phase change?
Which phase change?
Which phase change?
Which phase change?
Which phase change?
Which phase change?
What causes states of matter to change phase?
In which state of matter do the molecules move at a vibration or not at all?
In which state of matter are the molecules free to move around bouncing off of one another?
Why do the molecules in liquid move around more than those in a solid?
VI. How to measure matter
MASS
A. Mass:
how much matter
is contained in something;
Mass is affected by gravity; If gravity s constant we can call it weight. All matter has mass.
1. We measure this by using a
balance or scale.
2. Does air have mass? Is it matter?
Gas is a state of matter, air takes up space, air is matter!
Volume
Density... two components!!!
B. Volume:
how much space something takes up
, or how much of a container it fills.
1. How to measure: two ways
a) Measure with a ruler and then calculate using a math formula.
b)
Water displacement

using a
graduated cylinder
(cylinder with measurements like a ruler up the side); an objects volume will be the same as the volume of water it moves out of the way (aka the water it displaces);
What's the equation for the TARDIS?
What was this called?
What it is called when you use this and water to figure out the volume of something?
What has more mass a balloon filled with air or a rock of the same size?
Who is more likely to sink?
4. Density of water is
1.0 g/ml
5. If something is
more dense
than water it will be higher than 1.0 g/ml and it
will sink
(rock). If something is
less dense
than water < 1.0 g/ml it
float
(wood).

D. Diagram of density. The graphic on the left is more dense because the molecules are more closely packed than the ones on the right.
Diffusion & Expansion
Activity
Come up with a plan to mime out a definition of diffusion with your group.
What is diffusion?
Diffusion:
the natural tendency for molecules to disperse or spread out; It is affected by temperature.
Get your white boards ready
http://highered.mheducation.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter2/animation__how_diffusion_works.html
answer the questions on your white boards
OUR Smelly Experiment
What did we do?
What was happening?
Which way did the molecules move through the room?
If we did another experiment in the middle of the room, then what would happen?
Let's test it!
So does diffusion happen in gas and liquids? If so, why?
Talk to your groups, what do you think?
If diffusion happens because molecules move around freely dispersing throughout.... do you think it happens in solids?
Again, see what your group thinks. Come up with a stance and be able to defend it with evidence.
F. Diffusion occurs faster when there is more heat and slower then there is less heat. WHY?
Think back to our two cup experiment. What happens to density when the water is warm? Do you think the density of the material changes too?
What is density again?
Talk to your tables and make sure everyone is on the same understanding.
Heat Energy
Expansion DEMO
Balloon Representing Gas Expansion
Solids... do they expand too?
What diffusion is,
What diffusion isn't
A. Diffusion is the
random movement
of matter.
What it is...
What it is not....
Diffusion is not:
- a phase change
- heat expansion
- weathering or erosion
C. Diffusion occurs only in these three states of matter:
1. liquid
2. gas
3. plasma
Is this diffusion?
Yes or No
Heat influences diffusion and expansion.
NO!
NO!
YES!
NO!
YES!
YES!
YES!
NO!
C. Solids will grow larger, liquids will expand, and gas will spread out
when expanding, but do the opposite when contracting
VII. What happens to matter when heat is added?
Expansion
B. More heat = more movement = more expansion
Expansion happens naturally! Use it to open a jar!
Some substances expand faster that others. Metal expands more than glass.
How does this relate to the real world???
Expansion example:
siding slots made for loose attachment to allow for thermal movement
bridges
bricks
Expansion
is the action of becoming larger. This increases volume.
Remember what happens to the molecules when they go from state to state?
What causes the phase changes?
As more heat is added the matter becomes less dense because.....
WHY?
A.
Temperature
is the measurement of
heat energy.
So... if something has a low temperature it has low what?
Which state of matter can have the lowest heat energy?
Which state of matter can have the highest heat energy?
As heat energy is removed from matter it becomes more dense. WHY?
Does it affect mass?
What happens to density?
Sidewalks with gaps too small or poured in the wrong temperature.
Contraction is the process of becoming smaller. Volume is reduced.
Is mass being affected?
What is happening to the density?
Contraction example
Cracked cement
Glass contracting too fast
Basketball left out in the cold.
Why does this happen again? What does the removal of the heat cause the molecules to do?
Effects are the worst in places with large yearly temperature ranges.
Expansion/Contraction Research Project
classroom.google.com
Matter moves from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration.
B. All atoms have a natural movement. This is from the movement of the electrons in the atom. In solids this movement is a vibration. In liquids and gases the movement allows for mixing.
D. Diffusion does
NOT
occur in solids because the atoms lack the energy necessary to move freely.
E. Diffusion in gases and liquids will cause molecules to
spread out from high concentration to low concentration.
YES!
What is moving here?
F. Diffusion occurs faster when there is more heat and slower when there is less heat. Why?
More heat energy means more molecular movement. The hotter it is, the faster the particles of matter are moving and mixing.
Let's test it!
Water color experiment
Time to prepare for the unit test.
Full transcript