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The 2011 Libyan Civil War

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Austen Perich

on 17 November 2013

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Transcript of The 2011 Libyan Civil War

The 2011
Libyan Civil War

The Area of Conflict
Country in Civil War: Libya
The Area of Conflict Cont.
Climate of Libya
Climate of Libya Cont.

http://cdn.theatlantic.com/static/infocus/libya0309/s_l01_RTR2JNW9.jpg .
http://cdn2-b.examiner.com/sites/default/files/styles/article_large/hash/7d/ff/lib10_0.jpg?itok=e-SJ_TO1 .
http://arabbrains.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/Libya-flag1.png .
http://www.e-celebrities.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/libya-location-map.jpg .
Libya is a country located in the northern top fringe of Africa and is positioned west of Egypt, east of Algeria and north of Chad. Libya lies on the southern side of the Mediterranean Sea.
http://www.lonelyplanet.com/maps/africa/libya/map_of_libya.jpg .
The map on the top left shows the locations of both major campaigns and battles fought in the Libyan Civil War (the crossed sword emblems). It also shows the progression of rebel gains over the course of the year. The map on the top right shows the control of rebel and Gaddafi forces of north western Libya on June 1 (top) and September 2 (bottom).
Light green
represents Gaddafi control, while
represents rebel control.
The Course of War in Libya
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/19/Libyan_war_final.svg .
http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-UwgbFI4_jHA/TrhBTvJtpdI/AAAAAAAAAXA/XDekhKMhU5E/s1600/Libyan_Uprising_final_push_2.png .
Libya experiences the highest temperatures during June, July and August, and receives most rainfall during December, January and February.
http://www.climatetemp.info/graph/tripoli-libya_files/image001.gif .
http://africawiki.wikispaces.com/file/view/LibyaTravelVisa.jpg/34194297/LibyaTravelVisa.jpg .
http://tcktcktck.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Libya-desert-sun-CC-Thierry-Gregorius-2007.jpg .
http://www.southtravels.com/africa/libya/gifs/temperature.jpg .
http://www.ewpnet.co.uk/libya/wadi.jpg .
http://www.conservapedia.com/images/thumb/5/5c/Oasis_in_Libya.JPG/280px-Oasis_in_Libya.JPG .
http://saharaterritory.webs.com/libya/geography/libya%2003.jpg .
http://www.weatheronline.co.uk/cgi-app/cgi_klimagif?en6201013834764001111 .
A Brief Geography of Libya
Location: Northern top fringe of Africa. Positioned west of Egypt, east of Algeria and north of Chad. Libya lies on the southern side of the Mediterranean Sea.
Geographic Coordinates: 25 00 N, 17 00 E
Size: Approximately 1,759,540km (squared) - which is only slightly larger than Alaska.
Length of coastline: 1,770km
Climate: Mostly extreme dry desert. The coast has a Mediterranean climate.
Terrain: Mostly barren, flat, wave like plains. Some high but relatively flat areas.
Natural Resources: Natural gas, gypsum, petroleum
Natural Hazards: Hot, dry winds can cause sandstorms, dust storms, and other wind damage.
Current Environmental Issues: Limited fresh water due to low annual precipitation levels. Desertification.
Deserts and Semi Deserts cover more than 90% of Libya!
http://media.web.britannica.com/eb-media/84/62284-004-C67CBCAF.jpg .
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a8/Libyan_Dessert.jpg .
A Brief Geography of Libya Cont.
Type of Government: Military Dictatorship - when the military of a country controls its government and political power.
Main Religion: Islam (97%)
Ethnic Breakup of Population: Berber and Arab (97%), other (3%) - 'other' predominantly consists of Greeks, Maltese, Italians, Egyptians, Pakistanis, Turks, Indians and Tunisians.
Population: approximately 6,002,347
Age Composition of Population (2012):
0 - 14 years: 27.7%
15 - 24 years: 19%
25 - 54 years: 44.9%
55 - 64 years: 4.5%
65 years and older: 3.9%
http://www.indexmundi.com/libya/age_structure.html .
http://www.politicshome.com/images/libya.JPG .
The Conflict
Libya's civil war all began on February 16 (2011) with people protesting peacefully in Benghazi (Libya's second largest city) for the step down of Libya's Dictator, Muammar Gaddafi. Gaddafi had been in power for over 40 years and wasn't prepared to give up his position without a fight. He reacted violently, cracking down on protesters with his military forces. Armed uprisings occurred across the country and soon Libya was split between Gaddafi's government and rebel forces - who were under the control of the National Transitional Council (NTC).

On February 22 rebel forces claimed control of eastern Libya, then later the western mountains surrounding Tripoli (Libya's Capital). Gaddafi's forces were prevented from advancing due to the NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation) led bombing campaign, resulting in a stalemate between both sides for about 5 months.
On the 20th of August 2011 rebel forces began to fight against Gaddafi's government for the control of Tripoli. Within 12 hours it is estimated that 1,300 people were killed and 5000 wounded. After a few days, rebel forces finally had control of Tripoli and other areas surrounding the city. All the Gaddafi government had now were a few small cities and scattered desert outposts.

Over the course of two months following the capture of Tripoli, rebel forces claimed the very few Gaddafi held cities that remained. On the 20th of October Muammar Gaddafi was captured and killed by rebel forces in his hometown Sirte. The war was declared officially over on the 23rd of October 2011. The dispute for a new flag was officially over with the introduction of a new flag formed by the National Transitional Council.
The Conflict Cont.
http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/world/libya/images/libya-flag.gif .
http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-dz1Acs_0YmI/TV8FqRTZUII/AAAAAAAAPGs/6U4g9E_f7ec/s1600/800px-Flag_of_Libya_%25281951%2529.svg.png .
http://resources3.news.com.au/images/2011/02/21/1226009/690971-libya.jpg .
http://www.abc.net.au/news/image/2852956-16x9-700x394.jpg .
http://sfbayview.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/Libyan-loyalist-vehicles-air-strike-on-Benghazi-to-Ajdabiyah-road-032011-by-Goran-Tomasevic-Reuters.jpg .
http://coto2.files.wordpress.com/2011/06/france-bombs-gaddafi-libya-benghazi.jpg .
The Nature of the Conflict
Most of the conflict in Libya was fought in open areas, due to Libya's long, flat and expansive terrain. This encouraged the use of tanks by both sides. Rebel forces used the metal shell of abandoned Gaddafi tanks to upgrade their vehicles to withstand gunfire from Gaddafi forces.

Rebel forces used utes and tow trucks with mounted aircraft rocket launchers or machine guns. Battles often took place over large distances, unless within a city which would be close combat. Rebel forces used anything they could get (including stolen Gaddafi force weapons) to fight against Gaddafi.
http://www.theatlantic.com/infocus/2011/06/diy-weapons-of-the-libyan-rebels/100086/ .
http://www.theatlantic.com/infocus/2011/06/diy-weapons-of-the-libyan-rebels/100086/ .
How Was The Conflict Resolved?
The civil war was never resolved peacefully, only through physical means. Libya's people first saw the potential of the wars end when rebel forces took control of Tripoli. As Gaddafi's loyal forces fell, the war slowly came to an end. On the 20th of October 2011, Muammar Gaddafi was captured and killed. This meant that Gaddafi's government no longer had a leader, and so it collapsed.

Three days later the war was declared officially over. Libya's civil war was resolved by the efforts of rebel forces and the UN (United Nations) who helped throughout the conflict in various ways.
http://resources1.news.com.au/images/2011/02/22/1226010/355945-moammar-gaddafi.jpg .
Rebel forces celebrate the death of Gaddafi
http://i2.cdn.turner.com/cnn/dam/assets/111020024015-libya-celebration-07-horizontal-gallery.jpg .
The Effects of War on Libya
http://static.panoramio.com/photos/large/60636388.jpg .
With war comes the loss of life, destruction of buildings, damaged natural habitats and polluted terrain.
http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-O4421v_W920/TqC53mpcEOI/AAAAAAAALl4/RsANcDL5uAQ/s640/Libya+before+and+after.jpg .
http://edition.cnn.com/video/world/2011/04/27/libya.misrata.aftermath.cnn.640x360.jpg .
http://latimesphoto.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/la-libya-photo007_ls7.jpg .
http://www.dw.de/image/0,,15786867_303,00.jpg .
http://wpmedia.fullcomment.nationalpost.com/2011/03/libya0307.jpg?w=620 .
Geography. (n.d.). Infoplease. Retrieved November 16, 2013, from http://www.infoplease.com/country/libya.html

Geography and Map of Libya. (n.d.). Geography and Map of Libya. Retrieved November 16, 2013, from http://geography.about.com/library/cia/blclibya.htm

Libya Civil War Events. (n.d.). Libya Civil War. Retrieved March 11, 2013, from http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/10/20/us-libya-events-idUSTRE79J24N20111020

Libya Climate. (n.d.). Libya Facts. Retrieved November 2, 2013, from http://www.weather-and-climate.com/average-monthly-Rainfall-Temperature-Sunshine,Derna,Libya

Libya Ethnic groups. (n.d.). - Demographics. Retrieved November 16, 2013, from http://www.indexmundi.com/libya/ethnic_groups.html

Ms. K's Africa Geography Project - Libya's Climate. (n.d.). Ms. K's Africa Geography Project - Libya's Climate. Retrieved November 16, 2013, from http://academyafricageography.wikispaces.com/Libya's+Climate

The Atlantic. (n.d.). The Atlantic. Retrieved November 16, 2013, from http://www.theatlantic.com/infocus/2011/06/diy-weapons-of-the-libyan-rebels/100086/

What Is a Military Dictatorship?. (n.d.). What Is a Military Dictatorship. Retrieved November 16, 2013, from http://www.ask.com/question/what-is-a-military-dictatorship

APA formatting by BibMe.org.

The Area of Conflict Cont.
The map of Libya on the right shows the movement of rebel forces
(red arrows)
after September 2, 2011 (last stage of war). The map on the left shows the occupation of different forces in different cities on June 1, 2011. The
circles are rebel held cities, while
circles are Gaddafi held cities.
http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-IO5fpbVaC94/TmJMFFX76lI/AAAAAAAAAUc/PrblH9a4oLE/s1600/Libyan_Uprising_9-2.png .
Picture sources are found below the image.
http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-v62VLneRogc/TmJTJWnfWSI/AAAAAAAAAUg/5J18Kon2ep4/s1600/Tripolitanian_Front_comparison.png .
Music: Libya's National Anthem

By Austen Perich
Full transcript