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The Balkans in WWI

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Amanda Schaefer

on 28 March 2014

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Transcript of The Balkans in WWI

Allied Powers
Bulgaria-reverse outcome of 2nd Balkan War and acquire Macedonia and annex Serbia
territorial gains
Bosnia and Herzegovina-part of Austria-Hungary but looked to Serbia for future
incorporated into Yugoslavia
Croatia-part of Austria-Hungary but had nationalistic views
incorporated into Yugoslavia
Slovenia-part of Austria-Hungary but wanted future South Slav state
incorporated into Yugoslavia
Central Powers
Albania-was occupied by both sides (Austria and Bulgaria)
Kosovo became part of Yugoslavia
Neutral
Balkan Crisis
Bulgaria/Serbia wanted more land from Ottoman Empire (Treaty of Berlin)
Eastern Rumelia given to the Ottomans
September 18, 1885 Bulgarian Nationalist stage uprising in Rumelia
November 14, 1885: Serbia declares war on Bulgaria
Bulgarians (Alexander I) won
This ended the 2nd Three Emperors League
Treaty of Bucharest: reestablished the prewar Serbo-Bulgarian border/left Bulgaria and Eastern Rumelia united
Balkan Wars
June 28, 1914
Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand (heir to the Austrian throne)
Black Hand (Nationalist Group)
Causes outrage everywhere but Serbia
Kicks off World War I
“One day the great European War will come out of some damned foolish thing in the Balkans.” - Otto von Bismarck (1888)
Treaty of Versailles
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia, and Voivodina are all pushed into one big state of Yugoslavia
Everyone is left unhappy because Great Britain, France, and America didn't listen to their requests of independence and Serbia didn't get an outlet to the sea
"The Balkans produce more history than they consume"- Winston Churchill
Aims and Results
Serbia-outlet to the sea/free Serbian control and influence
repelled two Austrian invasions but defeated in 1915; harsh occupation
becomes part of Yugoslavia
Macedonia-mostly part of Serbia without any recognition
overrun by Central Powers and occupied
incorporated into Serbia; Yugoslavia
Montenegro-allied with Serbia
joins Serbia and then Yugoslavia
Greece-gain territory from Turkey
was used as a base of operations
made many territorial claims
Romania-joins war after receiving territorial promises
acquired all of Bessarabia, Bukovina, and Transylvania
War #1: Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro and Serbia declare war on the Ottomans October 8, 1912
The Balkan League easily defeated the Ottoman Empire
Armistice called Dec. 3, 1912
War #2: Serbia, Greece, and Romania fought Bulgaria
June 1, 1913- Serbia/Greece alliance vs. Bulgaria
June 29, 1913 War started
Bulgarians defeated
August 10, 1913 Peace Treaty
Greece/Serbia divided up Macedonia
As a result:
Albania became independent
Tensions rose leading to...June 28, 1914
The Balkans in WWI
Without Complaint:

All lands to us are dear and kindred:
In the bright sun, beneath the wild storms’ rage,
We were as calm as in our native land.


Within us through our wanderings we bear
Our homeland and its sufferings’ renown;
And now, I beg you, Fate, lay her to rest,
Stained with the blood of our eternal wounds!


And so for us the oceans are not strange,
Nor yet the graves of centuries long dead;
Calmly we sit at table in the world’s great hall
While still the foe drinks in our flowers’ scent.


With trumpets like a solemn church parade,
Alone, or with our children, wives, and herds,
We wander on from place to place, from town to town,
Bearing the banners of our greatness and our fall.


The scale we learned of old we now play out once more,
The scale of fate with others less than kind;
And so for us today nothing is strange,
It seems we passed through everywhere before.


And when we stir anew the ashes of our hearth,
And tell again the tales of olden days:
We’ll listen to the fire, hear its mirth,
Just as the master, homewards from the hunt
Carries upon his lips the self-same song


With which he left that morning for the mountain.

Milutin Bojic (Serbian)
1917
"If there is ever another war in Europe, it will come out of some damned silly thing in the Balkans”
-Otto von Bismark
The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes
Declaration of Corfu (1917) united Bosnia, Croatia, Serbia, and Slovenia
democratic kingdom
attempted to represent each ethnicity equally
ethnic rivalries divided the kingdom (nationalism)
instability turned the country to a dictatorship
http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?ItemID=WE53&iPin=WPA0214&SingleRecord=True

Yugoslavia
Russian View on the Balkan Problem
Serbia gained the Kosovo region and extended into northern and central Macedonia
Full transcript