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Biological Organization

Levels of Organiztion and Emergent Properties
by

Melissa Lee

on 16 May 2013

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Transcript of Biological Organization

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli Levels of Biological Organization The Biosphere The biosphere consists of all the environments on Earth that are inhabited by life. Properties Most regions of land and most bodies of water including oceans, lakes, rivers, and the atmosphere to an altitude of several kilometers. Ecosystems All the organisms in a given area as well as the abiotic factors with which they interact; a community and its physical environment. Properties All of Earth's ecosystems combined create the biosphere. Deciduous forests Grasslands Deserts Coral Reefs Properties Communities The entire array of organisms inhabiting a particular ecosystem is called a biological community. The community in our forest ecosystem includes many kinds of trees and other plants, diversity of animals, mushrooms and fungi, and microorganisms. Mushrooms and Fungi Trees Animals such as brown bears Microorganisms Populations A population consists of all the individuals of a species living within the bounds of a specified area. A herd of sheep in a farm community. . Organelles Organelles are the functional parts within a cell. They carry out the necessary actions and processes a cell requires to do its job. Examples of Organelles include: Molecules These are chemical structures that are made up of one or more atoms that are bonded together. Methane Water Organs and Organ
Systems An organ is a specialized center of body function composed of several different types of tissues. An organ system is a group of organs that work together in performing vital body functions. Organs: Organ Systems Tissues An integrated group of cells with a common function, structure, or both. They are so small that it requires a microscope to see them. Organisms Individual living things are called organisms. Properties: Forests animals, humans, frog, squirrel, bears, insects, dogs, etc. Cells The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of all known living organisms. Properties: Human body consists of trillions of microscopic cells. Examples include: muscle cells, nerve cells. Plant cells consists of numerous green structures called chloroplasts and they are responsible for photosynthesis. How can their be unity in diversity ? Both unity and diversity can be found in a discussion about organisms. Diversity can be explained by how different each organism in a species can look, act, hunt, ect. Examples would include the Finches that were observed my Charles Darwin. They are part of the same species, but because they have adapted to their different surroundings, they started to form new habits and varying in the way they look. Unity can be explained by common ancestors. Some organism share a common ancestor from which they have evolved. Examples would include wolves and dogs. They both have similar anatomical features and instincts. Even though they are very similar in body structure, some organisms can have a similar ancestor and have no similar features whatsoever. Wolves and whales share an ancestor, but it is obvious that they do not share any similarities other than that ancestor. Diversity and unity can also be explained by genetics. When species evolve, they inherit the genes from the previous generation. These genes were deemed ideal for the surrounding environment by natural selection. Since some members of the species live in different places, the traits for that distinct environment are passed on, causing diversity. Since, however, the organisms of the species have similar traits, they will continue passing them along, causing unity.
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