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1.1.9 Comparatives and superlatives.

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by

Luisa Camacho

on 13 April 2015

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Transcript of 1.1.9 Comparatives and superlatives.

1.1.9 Comparatives and superlatives.
We use the
comparative and superlative form
to compare and contrast different objects in English.

Comparative.
One Syllable Adjectives.

Add ´
-er
´ to end of the adjective.

(
Note:
double the final consonant if preceded by a vowel) remove the ´y ´from the adjective and add ´ier´.

Example:
cheap – cheaper / hot – hotter / high – higher.

Example Sentences
.

Yesterday was hott
er
than today.
This book is cheap
er
than that book.

Two Syllable Adjectives Ending in ´-y´.
Example
: happy – happier / funny – funnier.

Example sentences
:

I am
happier
than you.
That joke was
funnier
than his joke.

Superlative.
One syllable Adjectives.

Place ´
the
´ before the adjectives and add ´-
est
´ to end of the adjective

(
Note
: double the final consonant if preceded by a vowel)

Example
: cheap- the cheapest / hot . the hottest / high – the highest

Example sentences
:

Today is
the
hott
est
day of the summer.
This book is
the
cheap
est
I can find.

Use the
comparative form
to show the difference between two objects

Example:
New York is more exciting than Seattle.

Use the
superlative form
when speaking about three or more objects to show which object in ´the most´ of something.

Example:
New York is the most exciting city in the USA.
Now we will showing how to construct the comparative form in English.

Notice in the example sentences that we use ´
than
´ to compare the two objects:
Two, Three or More Syllable Adjectives.
Place ´
more
´ before the adjective

Example
: interesting – more interesting / difficult – more difficult

Example Sentence
:

London is
more
expensive than Madrid.
This test is
more
difficult than the last test.
Two, Three or More Syllable Adjectives.

Place ´
the most
´ before the adjective

Example
: interesting- the most interesting / difficult- the most difficult

Example sentences
:

London is
the most
expensive city in England.
That is
the most
beautiful painting here.
Two Syllable Adjectives Ending in ´-y´.

place ´
the
´ before the adjective and remove the ´
y
´from the adjectives and add ´
iest
´

Example: happy – the happiest / funny – the funniest

Example Sentences
:

New York is the noisiest city in the USA.
He is the most important person I know.

Important Exceptions.
There are some important exceptions to these rules. Here are two of the most important exceptions:

good

good-adjective
better- comparative
the best – superlative

Example sentences
:

This book is better than that one.
This is the best school in the city.

bad

bad – adjective
worse – comparative
the worst – superlative

Example Sentences
:

His French is the worse tan mine.
This is the worst day of my life.

1.1.9.1 Comparative Nouns.
When we want to talk about similarities and differences we can use adjectives in their comparative form.

Max is taller than Judy.
You´re more intelligent than me.

Or we can use (
not
) as (
adjective
) as

Her hair is as long as mine
This one´s not as interesting as his first book. Remember that ´not as interesting as´ means ´less interesting than´.
Modifying comparisons.
A big difference – much, a lot, far

We can modify comparative adjectives to show that there is a big difference between things.

Sales in July much higher than sales in June.
She´s a lot taller than you.
This one´s far more expensive than the blue one.

We can also say that things are completely different from each other.

They may be twins but they´re completely different from each other.

We can also use expressions
like
different form, similar to and the same as.

She´s very different from her sister. They´re very different.

Sri Lankan food is similar to Indian food. They´re similar.

Andrew is the same age as Lily. Their ages are the same. We use same with nouns.
A small difference

Slightly, a little, a bit, not much

We can show there is a small difference.

Sales in August were slightly lower than sales in July.
You´re a bit younger than me.
These are not much more expensive than those.

No difference- exactly, more or less, roughly

We can show that there is no difference or almost no difference.

He´s exactly the same age as me. ( No difference)
The figures for December are more or less the same as the figures for November. ( a tiny difference)
Full transcript