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World Literature Timeline

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Tara De Dios

on 29 April 2016

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Transcript of World Literature Timeline

Candide is important since it shows the movement from religious values to more practical human beliefs. Voltaire teaches real lessons of life.
World Literature Timeline
Beginning Myths
Ending/ Rebirth Myths
Cultural Folklore
The Middle Ages
The Renaissance
Romanticism/
Contemporary Literature
What we have read:
In the Beginning (Genesis)
The Creation (Greek)
What we have read:
Noah and the Flood
Coyote and the Origin of Death
Epic of Gilgamesh
What we have read:
Green Willow
Theseus
Osiris and Isis
White Snake
Rama and Ravana in Battle
The Illiad
What we have read:
Chevrefoil
The Grail
The Divine Comedy
Song of Roland
Love Letters of Heloise and Abelard
What we have read:
Much Ado About Nothing
Candide
Don Quixote
The Falcon
What we have read:
Jane Eyre
The Jewels
How Much Land Does a Man Need?
A Problem
What we have read:
Things Fall Apart
Eveline
The Ring
The Guest
Beginning Myths explain how the world was formed/ how it came to be. It remains essential to the modern audience because they reveal common truths, patterns, and themes that are familiar to different cultures. These beginning myths are one of the oldest stories which were passed on from generations through word of mouth.
Cultural Folklore's tell why different cultures have certain beliefs.
Ending/rebirth myths tell how the world ends and how it renews.
The Middle Ages lasted from
500 - 1500 AD. Literature during the time was mostly composed of religious works. Heroism and courtly love were some of the important themes that emerged in the Middle Ages.
The Renaissance period lasted from 1300-1700 AD. Literature during the era expressed humanist beliefs which focused on human values instead of religious ones.

Literature in the Romantic era
emphasized free expression of individual's thoughts and feelings while literature in the
Realism time period focused on details and truth of everyday life.
Realism
Modern and contemporary literature consists of a wide collection of literary movements, such as modernism, existentialism, absurdism, magic realism etc.
In the Beginning (Genesis)
Noah and the Flood
Chevrefoil
by Marie de France
Tristan and Isolde are lovers. Tristan is banished from his own land when the King finds out he is in love with his wife. Tristan travels to Cornwall, where Queen Isolde lives, and devises a plan to meet her again. When he hears that the Queen will travel through the woods, he cuts a hazel tree in half, squares it, and writes his name on the piece he cut. As Isolde passes by, she notices Tristan's sign and goes to him. The two rejoice together and remain passionate for each other. Alas, when they part, they are saddened.
Candide
by Voltaire
The Book of Genesis starts off with the
In the Beginning
narrative which contains three stories:
The Creation, Garden of Eden and The Fall
The Creation
reveals that God made the world, and everything in the world, and the entire universe out of nothing. He did so in seven days.
1st day- God created light and separated the light from the darkness, calling light "day" and darkness "night."
2nd day- God created firmament to separate with the waters and called it "Heaven."
3rd day- God created dry land calling it "Earth" and gathered together waters calling it "Seas." God also created vegetation as well as plants and trees
4th day- God created the sun, moon, and the stars to give light to the earth.
5th day- God created every living creature of the seas and birds. He blessed them to be fruitful and multiply.
6th day- God created the land animals and creates man in his own image. He blessed them to be fruitful and multiply then places man in charge over every living thing.
7th day- God finished his work of creation and rested on the seventh day, blessing it and making it holy.
The Garden of Eden
The Fall
The Creation (Greek)
is where God placed the man whom he
formed. The garden was full of beautiful trees and in the middle of the garden were two trees: the tree of life and the tree of knowledge of good and evil. God had commanded the man not to eat any fruit from the the tree of knowledge for if he did, he would die. God then decided that the man should not be alone, so God created living creatures. But still the man needed help in the garden. So God put him into a deep sleep then took one of his ribs and formed it into a woman to be the man's wife.
Romeo and Juliet
Madame Bovary
In the garden both the man and the woman were naked and were not ashamed. Then the serpent tells the woman that if they were to eat from the tree of knowledge their eyes will be opened, and that they will be like God, knowing good and evil. The woman saw the fruit and decided to take it since it was good for food, pleasant to the eyes and would make them wise. She ate the fruit and gave some to her husband who ate it as well. There eyes opened once they ate the apple and realized they were naked. When they heard the voice of God coming, both the man and woman hid themselves for they have sinned. God looked for the man and the man finally shows himself and confesses what they had done. The man blames the woman and the woman blames the serpent. God punishes the serpent by cursing him above all cattle; punishes woman with the pain of childbirth and also by being ruled over their husbands; punishes man by working hard to produce food. Now all humankind will now have to die. In the end, God clothes them and drove out the man and woman.
The Divine Comedy
by Dante Alighieri
This epic poem is composed of thirty three cantos and tells the story of Dante's journey through three realms of the dead (Hell, Purgatory, and Paradise). He is guided through Inferno (Hell) and Purgatory by a Roman poet, Virgil, and is guided through Paradise by his ideal woman, Beatrice. There are ten structures in each realm, in which Inferno has nine circles followed by Lucifer at the bottom, nine rings of Mount Purgatory followed by the Garden of Eden, and nine celestial bodies of Paradise followed by the Empyrean (God).
Inferno
Dante is lost in the woods and is being attacked by three beasts he cannot escape. He is rescued by Virgil and they take on a journey to the underworld. In Hell, each sin has a punishment. The three beasts Dante sees in the woods resemble three sins, which are self-indulgence, violence, and maliciousness. The three sins reflect the three divisions in Hell: (check book). Souls in the Inferno have great suffering
Paradise
Beatrice goes with Dante through Paradise, or Heaven. This Paradise is based on four cardinal virtues, which are prudence, fortitude, justice, and temperance, and three theological virtues, which are faith, hope, and love. Above all is the Empyrean, which contains the essence of God.
Purgatory
Dante and Virgil travel to the Mountain of Purgatory, where it is made up of the seven deadly sins. These sins are based on motives rather than actions. Love is a major sin on the Mountain of Purgatory. Individuals may mistakenly use love for wrath, envy, and pride.
How Much Land Does a Man Need
by Leo Tolstoy

Jane Eyre
by Charlotte Brontë
This Gothic novel tells about Jane, an orphan, who is raised by her cruel and affluent aunt, Mrs. Reed. Jane's cousin, John Reed, is also cruel to her and beats her when he can. Jane is sent to the red room one day for quarreling with John and when she faints and regains consciousness, she is taken to Lowood School. There, Mr. Brocklehurst is another cruel adult figure Jane has to deal with. After the typhus fever hits, the poor conditions of the school are brought to attention, and Jane's life improves. She spends six years at the school as a student and two years as a teacher. After teaching for two years, Jane moves to Thornfield as a governess, and there she meets Mr. Rochester. The two fall in love and Mr. Rochester eventually proposes to her. On their wedding day, Mr. Mason shouts out to everyone that Mr. Rochester already has a wife, Bertha. Bertha is kept hidden in the third story of Thornfield because she has gone insane. As Jane hears of this, she flees Thornfield because she believes she does not have a chance with Mr. Rochester. Jane ends up living with Mary, Diana, and St. John ("Sinjin") Rivers at Marsh End. St. John reveals to Jane of the inheritance left by her uncle, John Eyre. St. John pleads Jane to marry him and go with him to India as a missionary. Jane refuses and flees back to Thornfield for her love, Mr. Rochester. She returns to the remnants of Thornfield that was destroyed by Bertha. Jane goes to Ferndean, Mr. Rochester's new home, and rebuilds her relationship with him. The couple remarries and start a family.
The Guest
by Albert Camus
Daru, a schoolteacher in a remote plateau region, is met one day by two men, Balducci and an Arab prisoner. Balducci, a gendarme, has come to order Daru to turn the prisoner in at (location?). Daru refuses and Balducci leaves insulted by his refusal once their conversation is over. At night, Daru takes care of the prisoner by cooking for him and providing a bed for him to sleep in. As they both try to fall asleep, Daru realizes that his actions throughout the night resemble that of a bond in a brotherhood. The next morning, Daru contemplates on whether he should turn the Arab prisoner in, and he eventually does. He leaves the prisoner with enough food and money. Back at the schoolhouse, Daru finds a message written on his board.
Things Fall Apart
by Chinua Achebe

Don Quixote
Night
The Book of Genesis was important to the Christian religion because it revealed to many people the creation of the world to the creation of man and to the fall of man. Christians then and until today live day by day following God's commandments and what he wants them to do because God plays a huge part in their lives.
Night
by Elie Wiesel
This autobiography is on Elie Wiesel's life in the Nazi concentration camps during World War II. The author recounts his horrifying time in the Nazi concentration camp at Buchenwald and Auschwitz. Wiesel ends up surviving with his father when his family is separated on the arrival at Auschwitz-Birkenau. They are sent to the forced labor section, while his mother and two sisters are sent to the gas chambers. While in the concentration camps, Wiesel loses faith in God and humanity. Many prisoners in the concentration camps gradually become cruel and care only for themselves. As the dreadful days go on, the relationship between father and son begin to weaken when the author is forced to care for his helpless father. One day, the Nazis decide to send the prisoners on a death march to Gleiwitz because the Russians are on their way to liberate Buna. Wiesel and his father are two of the twelve that survive the brutal death march. In Buchenwald, Wiesel's father dies, and the camp is finally liberated on April 11, 1945.
We have NOT read:
The Creation (Greek) was especially important to the Greeks because they believed that their gods and goddesses played an active role in their lives. For anything that happens to them, they had the gods/ goddesses to thank or to blame.
God saw how evil the world had come had so he decided to wipe mankind from the face of the earth. However, Noah, found favor in God's eyes. So God instructed Noah to build an ark for him and his family in preparation for a huge flood that would destroy everything on earth. He also told Noah to bring two of all living creatures, both male and female, into the ark. It rained for forty days and nights causing a flood that wiped out everything. In the end, God promised "Never again will there be a flood to destroy the earth."
Noah and the Flood was important to the Christians because it revealed what God could do to get rid of evil and wickedness. This myth serves as a warning for them to not repeat what they have done before and to just follow God's commandments.
We have NOT read:
Madame Bovary
by Gustave Flaubert
Charles Bovary is ostracized during his youth because he fails to fit in at school. As an adult, Charles is more mediocre and boring. Charles meets Emma and the two fall in love and get married. A little while into the marriage, Emma realizes it does not meet her expectations, and she begins to dream about an extravagant life. After constantly dreaming about another life, she becomes ill and depressed. In hopes of bringing her happiness, Charles decides they should move to another town, Yonville. At Yonville, Emma gives birth to a baby girl, Berthe, and becomes disappointed for she desires to have a son. Emma meets Leon and learns that they have similar interests. They share mutual feelings and the feelings begin to turn romantic, but Emma decides to be faithful wife to her husband and newborn daughter. Feeling hopeless, Leon moves to study law in Paris, and Emma once again becomes depressed because of his departure. Soon after, at an agricultural fair, they meet Roldophe, an affluent neighbor lured by Emma's beauty. Once again, Emma develops feelings with another man behind Charles's back. Charles gets in trouble for an experiment he does at work and Emma falls deeper in love with Roldophe. Eventually Roldophe grows tired of Emma's expectations and rejects her. Emma suffers from heartbreak and once again becomes ill and depressed. Her constant sickness costs Charles his money and he begins to have financial problems. Still, doing anything to make his wife happy, Charles takes her to a local opera, where they bump into Leon. Emma and Leon fall in love again and Emma once again has an affair behind Charles's back. Soon, Emma gets bored of him and tries to leave him. She is in so much debt that she is desperate to do anything to keep Charles from finding out. In the end, she commits suicide and Charles is left alone with Berthe.
Coyote and the Origin of Death
Coyote and the Origin of Death explains how death came into the world. The natives believed disobeying a god or being evil led to one's death. This myth showed the fear people had of dying. In the myth the actions of tricksters were sole cause of death which is what the coyote represented.
Epic of Gilgamesh
The Epic of Gilgamesh describes Gilgamesh's journey. Similarly to the Coyote and the Origin of Death, Gilgamesh was afraid of death so he went on to search for everlasting life. Also similar to Noah and the Flood, the gods wiped out humankind because of such clamor.This piece of literature was important to the Sumerian culture because it explained where their certain practices and beliefs came from.
Green Willow
Tomotada, a samurai was sent out on a quest. On his way he meets a beautiful young girl, Green Willow and they fall in love. He was worried that the Lord of Noto would not give him permission to marry Green Willow and might even take her beauty as the Lord of Noto's own. So Tomotada leaves his duties and honor of being a samurai and runs off with Green Willow to live up in the mountains. In the end Green Willow dies and Tomotada regrets not completing his quest because there was no honor in that.
This tale explains what the people of this country (Japan) value and how they function. Honor is essential to an individual of Japanese decent. It also presents a conflict that is dealt with by society everyday
Theseus
The Tale of Theseus is similar to the Creation story of the Greeks. Being a greek tale, this literature was important because also shows the vital role and involvement of the gods/goddesses in their daily lives. This tale is also important to the greek culture because it is the basis of their belief that humankind can be powerful since Theseus defeated the Minotaur
Osiris and Isis
This myth tells a story about Osiris, a god who dies and then is brought back to life by his wife Isis. This shows that gods were immortal which was heavily believed by ancient Egyptians. Sacrificial rites egyptians practice might also have originated off this myth.

White Snake
White Snake is important because it shows that there are or could be happy endings. This was one of the first fairy tale's.
Rama and Ravana in Battle
Rama and Ravana in Battle is important because it shows the contrast between the good and evil gods in some religions. It was important since that is what they based their actions off of whether to do the right things or the wrong thing.
Chevrefoil and the Letters of Heloise and Abelard represents courtly love, an important part of their culture practiced during the middle ages. Courtly love emphasized nobility and chivalry where knights set out on adventures and perform various tasks for ladies.
Religion was very important during the middle ages. The Divine Comedy symbolized one's journey and quest for salvation. It showed that if one does not reject sin, they end up in the inferno and some might get stuck in purgatory and ones who do reject sin go to paradise.
The Grail and the Song of Roland focused on their main character's Perceval and Roland who were both knights that practiced good Christian values and chivalry. It was important during that time because their life centered on religion and chivalry
The Grail
The Letters of Heloise and Abelard
Song of Roland
330: Christianity is proclaimed the official religion of the Roman Empire
451: Papacy is set up in Rome
1000-1300: Feudalism is the main system of economy. Greek and Roman texts are rediscovered
1453: Turkish conquest of Constantinople ends Byzantine Empire

Things Fall Apart set during the turn of the 20th century. The literature shows the importance of the cultural values, practices and customs of the Umuofia tribe and how English colonialism caused their culture to die off.
1600-1750: Age of Absolute Monarchs; Age of Enlightenment (1650-1800); baroque style in visual arts, architecture, and music

1762: Jean Jacques Rousseau writes The Social Contract
1848: Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels develop theory of scientific socialism in The Communist
1861: Emancipation Edict frees Russian serfs from enslavement.

1881: Social unrest grows in Russia
1939: Aimé Césaire coins the term négritude and becomes one of the founders of the Negritude
1938-1945: Nazis murder over 11 million Jews, Gypsies, and other “undesirables” (Holocaust)

1960s: Postmodernism movement

The Guest focuses on emphasizes existentialism. It emphasizes the existence of the individual person as a free and responsible where they can decide on their own.
The Ring
The Ring emphasizes the notion of self-exploration and loss of innocence. In contemporary literature, getting to know one's self and maturing is one of the many main themes of a story.
Eveline
In contemporary literature, readers see more freedom with women. Eveline had to make a decision which women couldn't do before. During this time period, internal conflict is also another important part of the literature since it correlates with everyday situtations
Jane Eyre lesson is vital and important to society and humanity. It shows struggle between passion and reason (mind vs. heart)

How Much Land Does A Man Need is important to humanity because it shows that greed is never good. In the end, readers learn that when a person dies, they only get the land where they are buried on. A person cannot take with them their earthly wealth and materials once they die.
The Jewels
We have NOT read:
A Problem
The Jewel is important to humanity because it shows some of the real problems in society. It shows that a person could be hiding something and that people in general can be very oblivious when it comes to someone they love. Also it shows how a person can take something for granted when they have it and value it so much once they lose it.
A problem is important to humanity and society because it showed the consequences of doing things you are not supposed to do. It serves as an example and gives readers the idea to not do bad things that they will regret later on
The elements in Don Quixote show a mix of idealism, chivalry and romances. It is important because it differs it from the work in the Medieval era.
Much Ado About Nothing
The Separation of Heaven and Earth
Being a work of Shakespeare, Much Ado About Nothing is important because it lets modern readers learn about how culture was during the renaissance.
The Falcon
The Falcon resembles a lot of medieval literature elements of courtly love and chivalric code. It is important in the culture since there is a twist at the end which sets it apart.
SYMBOLS
ARCHETYPES
The Separation of Heaven and Earth
by Sir George Grey
Rangi and Papa (Heaven and Earth) were the prime ancestors and humans came from them. Rangi and Papa had six sons: Tane-mahuta, Tawhiri-ma-tea, Tangaroa, Tumatauenga, Haumia-tikitiki, and Rongo-ma-tane. Each son was the father of an important object in the world. All lived in darkness and there was no such thing as day and night. One day, the six sons decided to do something about the continuing darkness. Tane-mahuta suggested they should separate Rangi and Papa by making Rangi the sky and Papa the mother earth. Everyone was in favor with this suggestion except for Tawhiri-ma-tea. Four sons failed to separate the parents until Tane-mahuta put his head against the earth and pushed steadily against the skies with his feet until the parents were separated to reveal the light and the humans. After this, Tawhiri-ma-tea, the son who objected to the separation of the parents, grew furious and planned to avenge Rangi and Papa. Since he was the father of winds and storms, he used his power to punish his brothers. In the end, only Tu-matauenga was left to punish, but he withstood Tawhiri-ma-tea's punishments. Tu-matauenga consumed his four brothers but only Tawhiri-ma-tea was left unconquered. Today, Tawhiri-ma-tea's punishments are still felt when his storms attack humans on land and sea.
God Archetype
: Great worldly power or a great physical specimen. Can use power to help others or become a dictator and oppress others.
-Genesis: God
-The Creation: Zeus

Apocalyptic Hero Archetype
: Hero who faces the possible destruction of society.
-Noah and the Flood: Noah
-Epic of Gilgamesh: Gilgamesh

Star-Crossed Lovers
: Two characters who are engaged in a love affair that is fated to end in tragedy for one or both due to the disapproval of society, friends, family, or the gods.
-Green Willow: Green Willow and Tomodata
-Osiris and Isis: Osiris and Isis
Tara De Dios
Leanne Deng
Peter Kim
Carmen Lai
Victoria Phun
Period 5
The Journey
: Sends the hero in search for some truth of information necessary to restore fertility, justice, and/or harmony to the kingdom
-The Divine Comedy: Dante's journey through hell
-Song of Roland: Ganelon's journey for revenge

Clown Archetype
: Makes people laugh but hides his or her true feelings behind a mask
-Don Quixote: Don Quixote
-Much Ado About Nothing: Benedick

The Fall
: Descent in action from a higher to a lower state of being
-The Jewels: Maupassant's loss of his wife
- How Much Land Does A Man Need: Pahom's greed

Tragic Hero Archetype
: Hero who is fated to experience great suffering
-Things Fall Apart: Okonkwo
-The Ring: The wife
We have NOT read:
Romeo and Juliet
by William Shakespeare
This is a romantic tragedy focusing on two lovers, Romeo and Juliet. A duel arises between the servants of two enemy families, The Montagues and the Capulets. Meanwhile, thirteen year old Juliet Capulet has heard that Verona's most eligible bachelor Paris has his eyes on her. At the night of the masquerade ball, Romeo and his friends decide to crash the Capulet ball in costumes because Rosaline is on the guest list. Romeo meets Juliet and they both instantly fall in love, but then they find out that they're from rival families. Romeo meets with Friar Laurence to arrange the marriage, and Juliet gets her nurse to be a mediator. The nurse meets Romeo and his friend Mercutio, and they arrange to get Juliet to Friar Laurence. Benvolio, another member of the Montague Posse, runs into Tybalt. Capulet, who is angry about the Montagues crashing his family party the other night. Romeo, newly married, strolls into the middle of a tense situation, which gets way tense when Tybalt kills Mercutio and romeo promtly kills Tybalt. Romeo leaves but the prince still shows up to banish him. Meanwhile, back at the Capulet house, Lord Capulet decides a wedding with Paris is just the thing to distract Juliet from her grief. After Juliet's romantic wedding night, she finds out that she is supposed to marry Paris in two days. Juliet runs to Friar Laurence's, where she awkwardly kisses Paris and then threatens to kill herself. The friar comes up with a plan that he believes will work but is very dangerous and gives her a potion to fake her death for forty two hours until Romeo returns. Unfortunately, things didn't go as planned as Romeo is in Mantua and hears of Juliet's "death." After some miscommunications, Romeo ends up taking the potion to kill himself, for he cannot love anyone but Juliet and death cannot separate them. Juliet, after waking up from the potion, realizes Romeo is dead and kills herself with a dagger.
Timeline of Historical Events
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We have NOT read:
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Sir Gawain and the Green Knight
Sir Gawain and the Green Knight
by Pearl Poet
In Camelot, the castle was in the middle of Christmas celebration when a knight, dressed in all green, rode into King Arthur's court. Everything on him was green, even the mane and tail on his horse. In one hand the green knight carried a cluster of holly, while in the otherhe carried a great wicked axe. The green knight challenged the famous knights of the round table in a game of beheading. The green knight wanted one of the knights to use his axe on his own neck. In return the other knights must allow him to cut off the other's head in a year and day from now. The green knight offered his axe as a prize. No one believed this game would be possible without someone getting killed. No one would accept this challenge until the green knight accused the King's knights of being cowards. King Arthur felt so embarrassed that none of his knights would accept the challenge that he was going to accept the challenge until his nephew, Sir Gawain, took the challenge and swung the axe at the green knight's neck. Instead of the body collapsing to the floor, the knight bent over and picked up his head. The green knight told Sir Gawain to find him at the green chapel by the time of Christmas, so he could receive the return blow.


The Empty Pot
The Empty Pot
by Demi
Once, in China, an emperor made a special announcement to search for someone to replace his position as emperor. Having a passion for gardening, the emperor decided to make this a contest. He passed out flower seeds to boys in the kingdom. The winner who takes the emperor's position is the boy who grows the best plant. Amongst the boys who joined in on the contest was Ping, a popular gardener known for his expertise in growing the best fruits and vegetables. Since he had sufficient skills, Ping believed he had a good chance to win. However, while every other boys' plants grew rapidly, Ping's plant did not even sprout. He tried various methods and used the best soil he had but still he was not successful. As the contest drew to a close, boys everywhere brought their pots with blooming plants. Ping presented his empty pot truthfully. The emperor revealed that all the seeds were cooked, and so all the boys who had plants blooming were not honest. Ping received the emperor's position because he was the only one who was honest.
Numbers
10 - completeness, perfection (
Things Fall Apart
)
6 - man's weakness, sin, evils of Satan (
The Preparation of Heaven and Earth
)
Darkness- bad, evil and death
Hell (
The Divine Comedy
)
Night (
Inferno
)
Light- good, peace, enlightenment
God created day
(The Creation
from
The Book of Genesis)
Rangi the Sky
(The Separation of Heaven and Earth)
Tree/Forest- food, fuel, shelter, barrier
The Evil Forest (
Things Fall Apart
)
Honeysuckle Tree (
Chevrefoil
)
Water- purification or death
The Flood (
Noah and the Flood
)
Storms (
The Separation of Heaven and Earth
)
Red- romance, anger, war/violence, blood, fire, energy, passion, desire
The Red Room (
Jane Eyre
)
Sun red as blood (
How Much Land Does a Man Need
)
A Quest/Journey- move towards a goal, self discovery
Knight in search for the Holy Grail
(The Grail)
Jane Eyre finds herself through the four stages of her life
(Jane Eyre)
Dante goes through the circles of hell
(Inferno)
Shrek, Fiona and Donkey's trip to Far Far Away
(Shrek)
Ragnarok "The Doom of the Gods"
by A.S. Byatt
This story marks the time period of the end of the gods. Chaos soon broke out after Baldur's death and humans were disorganized. The pseudo-god and his son Loki, who were chained by the other gods to prevent them from causing further destruction in the Nine Worlds, both broke free from their chains and destroyed . Soon war among the gods broke out and all sides fought fearlessly. After the war, the Earth went back into its original peaceful form, all the gods went back to where they belonged. However, this peace is only temporary. It wasn't long until the Baldur returned from the underworld but the earth became more rich

Ragnarok
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