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Verbs/Using verbs effectively

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Ashley Park

on 5 October 2014

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Transcript of Verbs/Using verbs effectively

How to identify conventional verb forms

How to use verb tense to show time

To be able to distinguish between active & passive voice

How to use verbs to signal the functionality or likelihood of an action or event.
What you will be learning:
Verb Tenses
Verb tenses provide information about time. They are labeled as past, present, and future; they are also labeled as simple, progressive, perfect, and perfect progressive. The following chart shows how these labels apply on the tense
walk.
Voice & Mood
Verb Forms
Regular
Verbs
Ashley Park, Lauren Tyer, Thuji Zangmo, Narayan Biswas
Verbs/Using Verbs Effectively
Regular verbs have 4 forms:
1. Base Form
2. -S Form
3. -Ing Form (present participle)
4. -Ed Form (past form/past participle)
Base Form
The base form is the form that
you can find in the dictionary.
4 examples of basic forms are
talk, act, change, and serve.
-S Form
Adding -s or -es
to the base form.
Ex: Talks, acts, changes
-Ing Form/Present Participle
Adding -ing to the base form.
Ex: Talking, acting, changing
-Ed Form
Adding -ed to the base.

It can be called the
past form
if the -ed
is used
without
a form of the auxiliary verb
"have" or "be".
Ex: We acted like we knew what we were doing.

It can be called the
past participle
if the -ed is used
with
one of the auxiliary verbs.
Ex: We have talked about football several times.
Irregular
Verbs
Irregular verbs are verbs that don't
follow the rules of past forms/past
participles. Some may even have two
acceptable past forms and/or past
participles.
Ex:
Base -S Form -Ing Form Past Form Past Participle
Awaked, Awaked Awake Awakes Awaking Awoke Awoken
Prepositional Verbs
& Phrasal Verbs
Prepositional verbs
are frequently occurring combinations
of a verb and a preposition.
Ex: Look like, rely on, think about, ask for.
Phrasal verbs
are a combination of a
verb and a particle such as up, out, or
on.
Ex: Look up, stand on, lash out
Particles
are similar to an adverb or
a preposition, but it's so closely associated
with a verb that together they form a unit
of meaning.
Ex: Carry on, go on, make up, take on, turn out
Notice how all 5 examples have meanings that
can be said in one word: do, continue, form,
accept, attend
Auxiliary Verbs
Participles
Present participles
(-ing verb forms) are used with
a form of the auxiliary verb
be:
We
are waiting
for the next flight. It
is arriving
sometime this afternoon. Depending on the intended meaning,
past participles
can be used with either
be or have
: The first flight
was canceled
. We
have waited
for an hour. If a sentence contains only a participle, it is probably a fragment.
When a participle is part of a verbal phrase, it often appears without an auxiliary verb.
The verb
be
has 8 forms:
Be Be on time!
Am I am going to arrive early tomorrow.
Is Time is of the essence.
Are They are always punctual.
Was The meeting was scheduled for 10 a.m.
Were We were only 5 minutes late.
Being He is being delayed by traffic.
Been How long have we been here?
Example: Swatting at mosquitoes and cursing softly, we packed our gear. (COMPARE: We were swatting at mosquitoes and cursing softly as we packed our gear.)
Exercises:
(Distinguish whether sentence is past or present participle)
1) He is looking for his phone.
2) They are running to the mall.
3) They have left the room.
4) We are watching Frozen.
5) Dinner was ready an hour ago.
Some of the tenses have more than one form because they depend on the person and the number of the subject
Person
refers to the role of the subject.
- First person indicates that the subject of the verb is the writer.
- Second person indicates that the subject is the audience.
- Third person indicates that the subject is someone or something other than the writer or the audience.
First and second person references are pronouns but third person references can be either pronouns or nouns.
Number
signals whether the subject is singular or plural.
Voice
indicates the relationship between a verb and its subjects.
The subject is usually a person or thing performing the action when the verb is in the
active voice.
When the verb is in a
passive voice
, the subject is generally the receiver of the action.
Example for active voice:

Tom Hanks
wrote
the story.
Example for passive voice:
The book was written by Tom Hanks.
Passive voice
Verbs in passive voice:
When writing a sentence in the passive voice the verb phrase consists of a form of the auxiliary verb
be (am, is, are, was, were, been)
and a past participle.
Simple present:
The meeting
is called
to order.
Simple past:
The recruiters
were called
to duty.
Present progressive:
The council
is being called
to act on the proposal.
Past perfect:
Ms. Jones
had been called
for jury duty twice last year, but she was glad to serve again.
Mood
indicates the writers attitude concerning the factuality of what is being expressed.
Three Mood Types
Indicative mood
is used for statements and questions regarding fact or opinion.
Examples for indicative mood:
I am on the swim team
Were you on the swim team last year?
The swim team will meet tomorrow.
Imperative mood is used to give commands or directions.
Examples of imperative:
Plan on attending the meeting.
Be on time!
Subjunctive mood is used to state requirements, make requests, and state wishes.
Examples of subjunctive:
She suggests that you come early.
If you came to more meetings, you would understand the team's strategy.
If I had attended regularly, I would have voted for a different captain.
The auxiliary verbs
be, do,
and
have
combine with main verbs, both regular and irregular.
be am, is, are, we, were surprised
am, is, are, we, were writing
do does, do, did, call
doesn't, don't, didn't spend
have has, have, had prepared
has, have, had read
Combining auxiliary verbs with main verbs alters the meaning in a subtle way. This combination may result in providing information about time, emphasis, or action in progress.
Be, do,
and
have
may be used as main verbs as well.
be I
am
from Texas.
do He
does
his homework early in the morning.
have They
have
an apartment near the park.
Modal auxiliary
has nine parts:
can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will,
and
would.
Subjunctive has three parts:
present subjunctive
past subjunctive
perfect subjunctive
Exercises: Identify Active or passive sentences and change into either active or passive. [ from the Hodges handbook]
1. King Tut was enthroned at the age of nine.
2. Later, he changed his name to Tutankhamun.
3. At nineteen years of age, King Tut died.
4. His mummy was discovered in 1922.
5. Recently, King Tut’s DNA was obtained.

Present subjunctive
- It is the base form of the verb. It's used to express necessity
Ex: The house owner suggested that she stay for another year.
Past subjunctive
- It is the same form as the simple past except the past subjunctive form of "be" or "were" are used regardless of person or number. It's used to present hypothetical situations.
Ex: If they offered me the job, I would take it.
Even if I were promoted, I would not change my mind.
Perfect subjunctive
- It has the same form as the past perfect tense: "had" + past participle. It signals that the action did not take place.
Ex: She wishes she had participated in the Olympic game.
ibliography
Glenn, Cheryl, and Loretta Gray. "Chapter 7: Verbs." The Hodges Harbrace Handbook . 18th Edition ed. Boston: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2013. 93-107. Print.
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