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Verbs/Using verbs effectively
Transcript of Verbs/Using verbs effectively
How to use verb tense to show time
To be able to distinguish between active & passive voice
How to use verbs to signal the functionality or likelihood of an action or event.
What you will be learning:
Verb tenses provide information about time. They are labeled as past, present, and future; they are also labeled as simple, progressive, perfect, and perfect progressive. The following chart shows how these labels apply on the tense
Voice & Mood
Ashley Park, Lauren Tyer, Thuji Zangmo, Narayan Biswas
Verbs/Using Verbs Effectively
Regular verbs have 4 forms:
1. Base Form
2. -S Form
3. -Ing Form (present participle)
4. -Ed Form (past form/past participle)
The base form is the form that
you can find in the dictionary.
4 examples of basic forms are
talk, act, change, and serve.
Adding -s or -es
to the base form.
Ex: Talks, acts, changes
-Ing Form/Present Participle
Adding -ing to the base form.
Ex: Talking, acting, changing
Adding -ed to the base.
It can be called the
if the -ed
a form of the auxiliary verb
"have" or "be".
Ex: We acted like we knew what we were doing.
It can be called the
if the -ed is used
one of the auxiliary verbs.
Ex: We have talked about football several times.
Irregular verbs are verbs that don't
follow the rules of past forms/past
participles. Some may even have two
acceptable past forms and/or past
Base -S Form -Ing Form Past Form Past Participle
Awaked, Awaked Awake Awakes Awaking Awoke Awoken
& Phrasal Verbs
are frequently occurring combinations
of a verb and a preposition.
Ex: Look like, rely on, think about, ask for.
are a combination of a
verb and a particle such as up, out, or
Ex: Look up, stand on, lash out
are similar to an adverb or
a preposition, but it's so closely associated
with a verb that together they form a unit
Ex: Carry on, go on, make up, take on, turn out
Notice how all 5 examples have meanings that
can be said in one word: do, continue, form,
(-ing verb forms) are used with
a form of the auxiliary verb
for the next flight. It
sometime this afternoon. Depending on the intended meaning,
can be used with either
be or have
: The first flight
for an hour. If a sentence contains only a participle, it is probably a fragment.
When a participle is part of a verbal phrase, it often appears without an auxiliary verb.
has 8 forms:
Be Be on time!
Am I am going to arrive early tomorrow.
Is Time is of the essence.
Are They are always punctual.
Was The meeting was scheduled for 10 a.m.
Were We were only 5 minutes late.
Being He is being delayed by traffic.
Been How long have we been here?
Example: Swatting at mosquitoes and cursing softly, we packed our gear. (COMPARE: We were swatting at mosquitoes and cursing softly as we packed our gear.)
(Distinguish whether sentence is past or present participle)
1) He is looking for his phone.
2) They are running to the mall.
3) They have left the room.
4) We are watching Frozen.
5) Dinner was ready an hour ago.
Some of the tenses have more than one form because they depend on the person and the number of the subject
refers to the role of the subject.
- First person indicates that the subject of the verb is the writer.
- Second person indicates that the subject is the audience.
- Third person indicates that the subject is someone or something other than the writer or the audience.
First and second person references are pronouns but third person references can be either pronouns or nouns.
signals whether the subject is singular or plural.
indicates the relationship between a verb and its subjects.
The subject is usually a person or thing performing the action when the verb is in the
When the verb is in a
, the subject is generally the receiver of the action.
Example for active voice:
Example for passive voice:
The book was written by Tom Hanks.
Verbs in passive voice:
When writing a sentence in the passive voice the verb phrase consists of a form of the auxiliary verb
be (am, is, are, was, were, been)
and a past participle.
is being called
to act on the proposal.
had been called
for jury duty twice last year, but she was glad to serve again.
indicates the writers attitude concerning the factuality of what is being expressed.
Three Mood Types
is used for statements and questions regarding fact or opinion.
Examples for indicative mood:
I am on the swim team
Were you on the swim team last year?
The swim team will meet tomorrow.
Imperative mood is used to give commands or directions.
Examples of imperative:
Plan on attending the meeting.
Be on time!
Subjunctive mood is used to state requirements, make requests, and state wishes.
Examples of subjunctive:
She suggests that you come early.
If you came to more meetings, you would understand the team's strategy.
If I had attended regularly, I would have voted for a different captain.
The auxiliary verbs
combine with main verbs, both regular and irregular.
be am, is, are, we, were surprised
am, is, are, we, were writing
do does, do, did, call
doesn't, don't, didn't spend
have has, have, had prepared
has, have, had read
Combining auxiliary verbs with main verbs alters the meaning in a subtle way. This combination may result in providing information about time, emphasis, or action in progress.
may be used as main verbs as well.
his homework early in the morning.
an apartment near the park.
has nine parts:
can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will,
Subjunctive has three parts:
Exercises: Identify Active or passive sentences and change into either active or passive. [ from the Hodges handbook]
1. King Tut was enthroned at the age of nine.
2. Later, he changed his name to Tutankhamun.
3. At nineteen years of age, King Tut died.
4. His mummy was discovered in 1922.
5. Recently, King Tut’s DNA was obtained.
- It is the base form of the verb. It's used to express necessity
Ex: The house owner suggested that she stay for another year.
- It is the same form as the simple past except the past subjunctive form of "be" or "were" are used regardless of person or number. It's used to present hypothetical situations.
Ex: If they offered me the job, I would take it.
Even if I were promoted, I would not change my mind.
- It has the same form as the past perfect tense: "had" + past participle. It signals that the action did not take place.
Ex: She wishes she had participated in the Olympic game.
Glenn, Cheryl, and Loretta Gray. "Chapter 7: Verbs." The Hodges Harbrace Handbook . 18th Edition ed. Boston: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2013. 93-107. Print.