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Transcript of Chapter 13+14
The people had fled from Pharoah. "What is this that we have doe that we have sent away Israel from serving us?"
Egypt took 600 elite chariots to attack Israel. Egypt attacked them and encamped them by the sea. Moses believed in Hashem. Hashem asked Moses "to lift up your staff and stretch out your arm over the sea and split it". The angel of god and the pillar of cloud moved from in front of them to behind them. Moses stretched out his hand over the sea and Hashem moved the sea with a strong east wind all night, and he turned the sea to damp land and the water split. The water was like a wall on either side. Egypt chased after them with all the chariots and horseman. Hashem removed the wheels of the chariots and made it harder for them to drive. Hashem said to Moses "stretch out your hand over the sea, and the water will go back upon Egypt, upon its chariots and upon its horseman". The Egyptians did not survive. On that day Hashem saved Israel from Egypt. The people of Israel had faith in Hashem and in Moses.
Splitting of the Red Sea - Chapter 14
When the nation of Israel were leaving Egypt, Hashem had told Israel to make the exodus a holiday. The Israelites were to never forget the miracle of the exodus of Egypt. god told them that for seven days they were to eat flatten bread(matza). There would be no bread to be possessed by the Israelites for those seven days. Therefore he created the 'Hagadah' a book that explains the exodus of Egypt. The first born son of every family is appointed the g-d serving representative. the womb of the mother was dedicated to g-d and therefore the first born son was the representative. the nation were not told where they were to be traveling to, Hashem had let the Jews reconsider if they wanted to go back to Egypt. Yet Hashem had promised the nation that they would have the land of Israel (the promise he made with the forefathers. During the time the Jews were out of Egypt, Hashem would protect and help them.
For this to take place, three thing had to happen: Pharaoh had to realize that the Jews were not returning, he had to regret his decision to let them go, and he had to overcome his terror at standing in their way.
Israelites were embarrassed of the red sea not splitting and were praying and praying if the egyptians caught up with them. A person from the tribe of Yehudah thought that we should take action. once he jumped into the sea, the sea split.
The death of the firstborn finally breaks Pharaoh’s resistance, and he literally drives the Children of Israel from his land. So hastily do they depart that there is no time for their dough to rise, and the only provisions they take along are unleavened. Before they go, they ask their Egyptian neighbors for gold, silver and garments—fulfilling the promise made to Abraham that his descendants would leave Egypt with great wealth.
The Children of Israel are commanded to consecrate all firstborn, and to observe the anniversary of the Exodus each year by removing all leaven from their possession for seven days, eating matzah, and telling the story of their redemption to their children. They are also commanded to wear tefillin on the arm and head as a reminder of the Exodus and their resultant commitment to G‑d.
Soon after allowing the Children of Israel to depart from Egypt, Pharaoh chases after them to force their return, and the Israelites find themselves trapped between Pharaoh’s armies and the sea. G‑d tells Moses to raise his staff over the water; the sea splits to allow the Israelites to pass through, and then closes over the pursuing Egyptians. Moses and the Children of Israel sing a song of praise and gratitude to G‑d.
In chapter 13 god had told the Jews and Moses to remember this day that they had left Egypt. They had to remember this because god had made this day into a holiday and he would command for the Jews to tell the story of exodus to later generations of the Jews. Nowadays during the holiday of Pesach we remember the leaving of Egypt with symbolism's from then. We eat Matzot and bitter herbs that were eaten when the Jews were leaving. This was commanded by god and is a Mitzvah. Today, we also read the Hagadah which is the story of the leaving of Egypt. G-d had also allowed the nation to change their minds about leaving Egypt. They knew that they would encounter enemies and wars and they would be safe in Egypt yet they would still be in slavery under Egyptian rule. When the nation was leaving G-d had ordered them to take back the bones of Joseph. He was a great leader in Egypt and G-d wanted him to be buried in the land of Israel.