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Transcript of VAM Evaluations
Value Added Models (VAMs) of Teacher Evaluations
Lauren Hall 12/12/13
Since the advent of NCLB, student achievement will clearly be (and should be) a component of teacher evaluations.
VAMs are punitive and have been created & supported by non-educators
Evaluations should be focused on reflection and professional growth & allow for tough conversations to occur when needed
VAM is only as good as the test used as the measurement.
Out of the three approaches (credential, performance measure, and outcome measure), VAM only accounts for the outcome measure approach. There is danger putting all the eggs in one basket
What the Research
What the Research Says Cont...
VAMs are inconsistent and unreliable across models, courses taught, and year to year (Berliner, 2013)
VAMs have a 35% rate of inaccuracy across one year and a 25% rate of inaccuracy across 3 years.
VAMs are more accurate when the comparison is applied to the entire school, rather than the individual teacher.
VAMs are a cost-effective approach to measuring teacher contributions to student outcome
Three approaches to improve instructional quality: Credential, performance measure, and outcome measure. Teacher valued-added is the only measure that falls into the outcome measure category. Using the outcome measure to estimate teacher contributions to students learning skips the middle man of instruction and goes directly to what is the greatest interest. (Hill, 2009)
Teacher value-added measures might not appropriately account for the fact that certain teachers may be assigned students who are more likely to make achievement gains. (Hill, 2009)
Evaluations are used to hold teachers accountable
Differentiate between effective and ineffective teachers
Help the ineffective teacher become more effective by providing support/Professional Development
What are Teacher Evaluations?
What are Value Added Models?
designed to statistically analyze student test scores to look for gains, which, ideally, should indicate teacher effectiveness
The relationship between scores and instruction are absent (Darling-Hammond et al., 2012).
Evaluations should improve the teaching craft by ensuring: teachers document lesson plans, have modifications for both English learners and special education students alike & gather and analyze evidence of student learning (Darling- Hammond et al., 2012)
VAMs rely on statistical controls for past achievement to parse out the small portion of student gains that is due to other factors, which the teacher is only one. (Darling- Hammond et al., 2012)
What the Research Says Cont.
Teachers' value-added performance is affected by the students assigned to them - who is then accountable for students with huge, preexisting learning gaps?
Subject areas without a test will be subjected to a different approach which is unfair
Out of the 5 teachers interviewed, only 1 had heard of VAM
No one had a clear understanding of what VAM is
Thought it was a good idea, but saw some glaring problems
Would need to test students at the beginning and end of the year to accurately measure growth
Could foresee student groups that could be problems (Special ed, Gifted & EL students)
None of the interviewees recognized the Value-Added Model until it was explained to them
One AP stated that “we cannot use data to evaluate teachers”
Our district expects us to analyze data (CST scores)
o The information gathered has been used to place students, to differentiate instruction, for discussion in meetings, and to measure “student growth”
It is not fair to look at only the Value-Added Model to evaluate a teacher because the group of students he/she has will greatly affect the outcomes of the tests
For example: ELs, IEP students, students with behavioral issues, etc.
If a teacher is teaching an honors class, his/her test results will differ greatly from the teacher who is teaching the non-honors class
Issues outside of the classroom may affect a student’s test scores
Rather than using data to evaluate teachers, “observations and conversations” are used
VAM should be just one of many assessments used to evaluate teachers
Some teachers may be effective at some forms of instruction or in some portions of the curriculum and less effective in others. If so, their rated effectiveness would depend on whether the student tests used for the VAM emphasize skills and topics for which the teacher is relatively more or relatively less effective (Darling- Hammond et al., 2012)
Disputes over the public’s right to know VAM results
2011 – New York City
Mulgrew v. Board of Education
2012 – Los Angeles Times
Disputes over how much weight to give VAM data
New York teacher’s union successfully convinced a state court that “the state’s reliance on student test scores was too heavy and contravened a statutory obligation to utilize multiple measures of performance.”
• Disputes over cheating on student tests
Student cheating is to be expected… Teacher cheating is unacceptable!
“A Georgia appellate court found that it was appropriate for the state to temporarily suspend the license of a kindergarten teacher who changed some of her student’s incorrect answers on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills.”
Potential student civil rights claims
Potential student statutory issues on access to educational opportunity
History of Value Added Models
Berliner, D. (2013). Problems with value-added evaluations of teachers? Let me count the ways!, The Teacher Educator, 48:4, 235-243.
Schochet, P. & Chiang, H. (2013). What Are Error Rates for Classifying Teacher and School Performance Using Value-Added Models? Journal of educational and behavioral statistics. April 2013 vol. 38 no. 2 142-171
Darling-Hammond, L., Amrein-Beardsley, A. Haertel, E., Rothstein, J. (2012). Evaluating teacher evaluation. Kappan, 8-15.
Hill, H. (2009). Evaluating value-added models: A validity argument approach. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 28(4), 700-712.
Kwek, J., ERHS Principal
Rodriguez, S., ERHS AP Curiculum
Carreon, L., ERHS Teacher/ baraining team member
Schofield, J., SGHS Principal
Stone, D., SGHS AP Curriculum Instruction
Pullin, D. (2013). Legal issues in the use of student test scores and value-added models (vam) to determine educational quality. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 21(6), Retrieved from http://epaa.asu.edu/ojs/article/view/1160
Doran, H. C., & Izumi, L. T. (2004). Putting education to the test: A value-added model for California. San Francisco: Pacific Research Institute.
Sanders, W. L., & Rivers, J. C. (1996). Cumulative and residual effects of teachers on future student academic achievement.
Began with 2002 No Child Left Behind
a. Imposed the “most significant set of federal requirements ever imposed on states and local public schools”
b. Relied heavily on high-stakes testing to grade schools
Continued with 2009 Race to the Top (RTTT)
a. January 2012 report identified 24 states “requiring the use of student achievement data as part of teacher evaluations following the adoption of RTTT”
History of Value-Added Model
In 1993, Dr. William L. Sanders developed the Tennessee Value-Added Assessment System (TVAAS), which is also known as the Educational Value-Added Assessment System (EVAAS)
A method for measuring a teacher’s effect on student performance by tracking the progress of students against themselves over the course of their school career with their assignment to various teachers’ classes
Supports the theory that the quality of teachers is central to educational achievement
What the Research Says
“Wright, Horn, and Sanders (in press) have demonstrated that, within grade levels, the single most dominant factor affecting student academic gain is teacher effect.”
· Both the Tennessee and Dallas approaches have been used to identify effective teachers and were included as components in state and district accountability plans. In Tennessee, for example, individual student data has been linked to specific teachers. As a result, the effectiveness of individual teachers could be estimated.
· The REACH (Rate of Expected Academic Change) value-added model focuses on the achievement growth of individual students and measures that growth not in comparison to other students but instead against the goal of subject-matter proficiency.
Better evaluation of policies and programs
the REACH VAM can inform lawmakers, education leaders, teachers, and the public about which instructional practices are best able to move students toward subject-matter proficiency
Promotion of better instruction
Compensation systems based on teacher effectiveness
· Subjective evaluations of teachers by administrators or fellow teachers
· Teachers at affluent high-performing suburban schools
value-added-based compensation system, however, would address these concerns by rewarding based on gains in test scores.
Better measurement of teacher effectiveness
Residual classroom effect has to be fully explored and understood before implementation of a high-stakes system (McCaffrey et al, 2003b).
Unique teacher IDs to link individual scores to classroom teachers over time
Improve teacher professional development
Professional development is not one-size-fits-all
By showing whether students are growing toward subject-matter proficiency, value-added analysis can individualize professional development to address teacher weaknesses
· “In other words, the data should serve an internal function to support appropriate classroom action, i.e., instructional consequences that originate from within a school system. At the same time the data should serve an external function to support appropriate public action, or social consequences that originate external from the school.”