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Yhpargoeg Namuh

A Human Geography review! Lets ace that exam!
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Madi Book

on 6 May 2010

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Transcript of Yhpargoeg Namuh

AP Human Geography Migration
Popular and Folk Culture
Ethnicity
Language
Religion
Political Geography
Urban Patterns and Services
Development
Agriculture
Industry Human Geography:
the study of relationships
between the environment
and humans GPS, remote sensing and GIS are all used for...

Latitude:
the invisible line that goes parallel to
the equator Longitude:
the invisible line running north and south Site:
The absolute location
of a place GPS is used for absolute location

GIS is used to stor the information the GPS locates on the Earth
Remote sensing is both GPS and GIS (the methods used to gather data) Situation:
the relative location of a place GMT:
Greenwich Mean Time
Time measured from Greenwich, England
At 0 degrees longitude Equator:
an imaginary line around the earth equidistance from the North and South poles Prime Meridian: the line at 0 degrees longitude Types of Maps Mercator: a map projection of the Earth onto a cylinder Robinson: a map projection of the Earth
that reduces the distortion of the polar
land masses Projections Kinds of Maps Climate Maps: gives general information about the climate and precipitation of a region
Economic Maps: features the type of natural resources or econiomic activity that dominates the area Physical Maps: illustrate the physical features of an area (mountains, rivers, lakes, etc,) Political Maps: do not show physical feature---not rather national/politcal boundaries Topographic Maps: include obscure lines to show the shape and elevation of an area Road Maps: show the major highways, railroad tracks, airports, etc. Land Ordinance of 1785: a law passed that allowed for sales of land in the NW Terrioty. It also set up standards for land sale (for example, the mile-square sections) 4 Ways to Show Uniqueness of a Place Toponym:
place name--the actually unique name of a place Site

Situation Mathematical Location:
the precise statement of location using a system of measurement Regions Formal: a region where everyone shares one or more common, distinctive characteristics Funtional Region: a region that has a defined core/forcal point Vernacular Region: a place that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity Environmentalism: the view that culture is determined by the physical environment Possibilism: the view that culture is determined by man's actions Density Arithmetic: the total number of people divided by the total land area Physiological: is the total population divided by the amount of arable land Agriculture: in the total rural population divided by the amount of agricultual land Diffusion Expansion Diffusion Contagious Diffusion Form of expansion diffusion where most
people that are near are affected Hierarchical Diffusion The spread of an idea from people of authority or power to other people Stimulus Diffusion The spread of an underlying principle eventhough a specific characteristic is rejected Relocation Diffusion The spread of an idea through the physical movement of people Isoline: a line connecting points of equal value on a map 4 Most Populated Regions
Tokyo, Japan 32,450,000
Seoul, South Korea 20,550,000
Mexico City, Mexico 20,450,000
New York City, New York 19,750,000 Ecumene: places inhabited by people Reasons Places are Sparsely Populated
Climate
Resources
Accessibility Crude Birth Rate: child births per 1000 people per year
(# of births/population) x 1000 Crude Death Rate: total number of deaths per 1000 people a year
(# of deaths/population) x 100,000 Natural Increase Rate: the increase of the
native born population
CBR- CDR Total Fertility Rate: the average number of childeren that would be born to a woman in her lifetime Infant Mortality Rate: the number of deaths of childeren under 1 year old Life Expectancy: the expected length of time a person will live Population Pyramids Demographic Transition Model Thomas Malthus "There will always be too many mouths to feed and not enough food to feed them. "
Baby BOOMERS a person born in the 1950's or post war years The Belts of the US The Bible Belt The Sun Belt The Rust Belt Push & Pull Factors
Economic conditions ie: poverty
Political circumstances
Armed conflict and civil war
Environmental conditions
Culture and traditions
Technological advances Internal Migration: migration that
occurs with in the borders of
the country Early 20th Century many African Americans from the South of the US went to industrializing cities of the Northeast and Midwest. International Migration: migration of people across country borders US Immigration Patterns 19th Century Colonial Times Population Introduction to
Human Geography hello heekl Recent Migration mainly came from Europe and Africa---most Africans came as slaves and most Europeans were voluntary migrants 40 million Europeans to the United States because the US offered the greatest opportunity for economic success Asian Immigration In the 19th Century and 1st half of the 20th Century---only 1 million Asians to US Latin America Migration About 2 million to US between 1820 and 1960 Undocumented Worker: and illegal immigrant that violates immigration laws would not have permit/visa Documented Worker: an immigrant that legally comes to work they have a visa they may be a temp-worker (they are hired for a temporary position) or they may be under a time contract Migrant: a traveller that goes from one region to another Refugee: an exile who flees for safety Most from China, Turkey, and Japan During the last quarter of the 20th Century, about 7 million Asians arrived in US About 13 million between 1960 and 2005 to US Germany has sent the most immigrants to the US with Italy following close behind; 7.2 million and 5.2 million respectively During the 30's and 40's migration was slow (the Great Depression and WW2) During the 50's 60's and 70's, migration increased to historically high levels. Most immigrants are from Latin American and Asia Obstacles Attitudes hesitatation suspicion opposition racism Culture cultural practices were looked down upon didn't have the resources had to incorperate culture into their surroundings Quotas Maximum Limits on the number of people who could come to the US from each country in one year Most quota laws ensured that most immigrants to the US continued to be Europeans Quota Act 1921--only 2% could immigrate 1965 Quotas were eliminated Hearth: center of innovation Origins of Folk Music:
-2697 BC in China Origins of Popular Music:
-1900 AD
-Hip Hop-----New York
Origins Amish: customs illustrate how relocation diffusion distributes folk culture Sports soccer originated in England in the 11th century cricket is popular in Britain and former British colonies ice hockey prevails in colder climates (Canada!) martial arts in China Habit: a repetitive act that a particular individual performs Custom: a repetitive act of a group performed at the extent that it becomes a characteristic of the group Folk Food Habits: derive from environment Taboo: restriction of behaivor imposed by a social custom Housing: has distinctive building materials, house form, and orientation. The house is related to the environment and social conditions. Popular Housing: newer housing reflects rapidly changing fashions Clothing: Jeans are an important symbol of the diffusion of Western Culture in the 1960's. Food: consumption of large alcohol beverages and snack foods are characteristics of food customs and society Wine: the spatial distribution shows that the environment plays a role in the distribution of popular as well as folk customs Television: significant popular custom because it's the most important mechanism by which popular culture is rapidly diffused Internet: follows the pattern established by TV--a generation earlier--but at a more rapid pace government control: most TV stations are owned by private corps which receive licenses from the gvmt to operate at specific channels Threats to Folk Culture rising incomes can fuel demand for the possessions typical of popular culture women were usually there to perform household chores, but now they have become a greater influence on society media: less developed countries fear popular culture will enter into their country through the use of electronical devices Uniform Landscapes: the distribution of popular culture around the world tends forming placelessness Largest Family Indo- European Branches Germanic Indo- Iranian Balto-Slavic Romance Kurgan Hearth Theory Anatolian Hearth Theory Isolated Language: one that does not decend from an ancestor Creation and Diffusion of English In England; since the 17th century Now, it's mostly diffusing from the US Differences between Brittish and American English Differences beccause of isolation Differences in spelling, vocabulary, and pronunciation Dialects: a regional variation of a language distinguished by distinctive vocab, spelling, and pronuncation. Second Largest Family Sino-Tibetian spoken by more than 1/4 th of the world Preserving Language Keeping languages from becoming extinct Celtic: preserving the endangered language Hebrew: a rare case of reviving an extinct language Multilingual States Belgium: the southerners (walloons) speak French and the northerners (Flemings) speak Flemish. This separates their economy, politics, and government. Switzerland: deals with having multiple languages in their country; this is because of their decentralized government. Centripetal/ Centrifugal Forces Drive people out Attract people Global Dominance of English LINGUA FRANCA Ethnic Religions:
Hindusim
Confucianism
Daoism
Shintoism
Judaism Universalizing Religions:
Christianity
Islam
Buddhism
Sikhism Diffusion Patterns Relocation diffusion, expansion diffusion, hierarchical diffusion, contagious diffusion. Divisions within religion Places of Worship
Christianity---churches
Musulm---mosques
Hinduism---temples
Buddhist---pagoda

Sacred Space
Disposing of the dead
Religous settlements Adminstration of Space
Hierarchical Religions
Local Religions Conflicts Religion v Government diminished in some societies because of political and economic change Religion v Religion Religions have conflicts with eachother Ethnicites cluster because they can realte to eachotehr through the same culture African American Migration Patterns:
Immigration from Africa to the American colonies in the 18th century
Immigration from southern US to northern cities durring the first half of the 20th century
Immigration from inner city ghettos to other urban neighborhoods. Race: Identity with a group of people decended from a common ancestor Ethnicity: A group of people that share a distinct physical and mental trait as a product of common heridity and cultural traditions. Impact on Physical Landscape: Plessey: about black and white passengers having to ride in seperate railway cars. Brown: Integration of schools White flight: whites moved out becasue they did not like the integration laws. Apartheid: physical separation of different races into different geographic areas. Multi-ethnic states: the state that contains more than one ethnicity. multinational: two ethnic groups with traditions of self-deternination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing eachother as distinct nationalities. Hotspots for conflict:
Ethopia and Eritrea
Sudan
Somolia
Lebanon
Nationalism: loyality and devotion to a nationality You have to be part of an ethnicity to have nationalism Genocide and Ethnic Cleansing: a process in which a more powerful ethnic group removes a less powerful one inorder to create an ethnically homogenous region. Yugoslavia Balkanization: the process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities. Balkanized: ethnicites realzing they are not able to stay in the same geographic area sucessfully. State: an area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government that has control over its internal and foreign affairs. 180-210 states worldwide Shapes of states:
elongated --- could get more costal area
proroupted --- could get more natural resources
compact --- shortest possible boundaries to defend
fragmented --- discontiunes pieces of territiory
perforated --- could get easily overtaken
Cultural boundaries:
Geometric
Religous
Language Cyprus's "Green Line": the third largest island in the Mediterranean sea; getting fought over by the greeks and the turkish
Unitary: places most power in the hands of central government officials. STRENGTH: enable one ethnic group to extend dominance over weaker groups. Federal: Allocates strong power to the units of local government within the country. STRENGTH: more authority to adopt their own laws Gerrymandering: the process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the pary in power. Economic, Military and Political cooperation: specific agreements between countries to keep peace. After WWII Europe joined NATO Terrorism: the systematic use of voilence by a group in order to intimidate a population into granting its demands. HDI: Human Development Index reconigizes that a countries level of development is a function of economic, social, and demographic factors. GDI: Gender related Development Index compares the level of development of women with that of both sexes. Economic Factors that show development:
self-sufficiency
International trade
Finances
Fair trade
GEM: Gender Empowerment Measure compares the ability of men and women to participate in economic and political decision making. MDC: More Developed Country
in the core
EX: US, EU, Australia LDC: Least Developed Countries
in the periphery
EX: Africa, some of South America self sufficiency: state of not requiring any outside aid, support, or interaction, for survival. Interational Trade: is exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories. Rostow's Development Model LDC's lack the money needed to finance development. LDC's generally must obtain funds from MDC's (loans and structural adjustment programs) Location hearths:
Fertile Cresent
Nile Valley Subsistence: found in LDC's; its the production of food primarly for consumption for the farmers family. Commercial Agriculture: found in MDC's; its the production of food primarily for sale off the farm. Principles:
Purpose of farming
Percentage of farmers in the labor force
Use of machinery
Farm size
Relationship of farming to other businesses
*these distingusish comercial from subsistence agriculture* Challenges:
overproduction
sustainable agriculture
Challenges:
Population growth
Food for export instaed of direct consumption
Stratigies to increase food supply:
Expand the land area
increase the productivity of land now used for agriculture
Identify new food sources
Increase exports from other countries
Genetically Modified foods: changes in foods to increase production, appearance, growing conditions, ect. Agribusiness: large-scale farming enterprise Factory Farming: the practice of raising farm animals in confinement at high stocking density. Dairy Farms!!! Von Thunen's Model Desertification: human actions are causing land to deteriorate to a dessert like condition Green Revolution: the invention and rapid diffusion of more productive agricultural techniques during the 1970's and 80's that involves new higher yield seeds and the expanded use of fertilizers. Industrial Revolution: rapid development of industry in the early 19th century through the introduction of machines – as work became concentrated in factories, industrial towns grew around them World Industrial/ Manufacturing Regions
Japan
Western and Central Europe
Great Brittian
North America
Ukraine Shifts in industry:
Post fordist to fordist (goods not mass produced to assembly lines) REASONS: technology, communication, transportation, ect. Manufacturing has shifted toward the south and west in the US Bulk gaining: makes something that gains volume or weight during production. Ex: soft drink bottling Bulk reducing: an economic activity in which the final product weighs less than its imputs. ex: copper concenration Shift in steel production in the US: plants are closing and moving to the coast. New Industrial Regions:
China
Mexico
Brazil
Central Europe New Interantional Division of Labor: selective tranfer of some jobs to LDC's Outsourcing: Turning over much of the responsibility for production to independent suppliers. Multinational Corporations: Powerful companies, mainly from the West or Pacific Rim, with production as well as distribution operations in many different countries. Shifts in services:
Secondary sector services have stayed sonstant
Business services have stated the same
The number of jobs in Consumer and public services have greately increased. Types of services:
Consumer
Business
Public Concentric Zone Model Sector Model Multiple Nuclei Model Rank Size rule: The ‘rule’ states that, if the population of a town is multiplied by its rank, the sum will equal the population of the highest ranked city. In other words, the population of a town ranked n will be 1/nth of the size of the largest city—the fifth town, by rank, will have a population one-fifth of the first. Primate city: a countries largest city Basic Services: Export primarily to consumers outside the settlement Non basic services: Enterprizes whos coustomers live in the same communtiy; essentially consumer services. Beaux arts: the fine arts The City Beautiful Movement was a Retrogressive reform movement in North American architecture and urban planning that flourished in the 1890s and 1900s with the intent of using beautification and monumental grandeur in cities. Gateway cities: From 1800 to 1860 men and women moved into western cities to find new opportunities and new profits. Industrial cities appeared after the full development of industrial capitalism in the core nation-states of the late 18th-century world system. Their urban cultural role fit well with the capitalist economic order that came to dominate all other social institutions. Urban Sprawl: the unrestricted growth of housing, comercial developments, and roads over large expances of land, with little concern for urban planning. Postitive: seen as a sign of economic growth Negative: associated with air pollution Squatter settlements: Also called a shanty town, is a slum settlement (sometimes illegal or unauthorized) of impoverished people who live in improvised dwellings made from scrap materials: often plywood, corrugated metal, and sheets of plastic. Shanty towns, which are usually built on the periphery of cities, often do not have proper sanitation, electricity, or telephone services. Edge city a large node of office and retail activities on the edge of an urban area. Made by:
Sam Sheets
Emily Erickson
Lauren Mickelson
Madi Book
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