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Empires in East Asia 600-1350

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Libby Rose

on 1 March 2014

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Transcript of Empires in East Asia 600-1350

Empires in East Asia
600 A.D. - 1350 A.D.
Chapter 12
The Mongol Conquests
Empire of the Great Khan
Feudal Powers in Japan
Kingdoms of Southeast Asia and Korea
Let's Get Down to Business, to Defeat the Test!
Two Great Dynasties in China
The Tang Dynasty
The Song Dynasty
Science and Technology
Agriculture and Trade
Golden Age of Art
Changes in Chinese Society
Sui Wendi - first emperor of the Sui Dynasty
-lasted 2 emperors
-completion of Grand Canal
Tang Taizong- first emperor of Tang Dynasty
- ruled for 300 years
Tang Dynasty accomplishments:
-expanded empire
-strengthened central gov.
-expanded roads and canals
-lowered taxes and gave land to peasants
-promoted trade
-improved agriculture
Civil Service Examination:
- started by the Han Dynasty
-Tang opened schools to train young scholars (Confucianism, poetry, etc.)
-elite group

Only wealthy could afford
Talent and education > noble birth
Tang Loses Power
mid 700s - Tang lose power
- to support military increased taxes
Could NOT control vast empire
Lost vast amounts of territory to foreign powers
907: Chinese rebels sacked and burned Tang capital
Song Taizu: first song emperor
-960 A.D.
- last ~3 centuries
Smaller empire than Tang Dynasty
-never recovered N. or W. lands
early 1100s: Jurchen conquered N. China
-established Jin empire
-forced Song to retreat
Hangzhou: new Song capital
Southern Song had rapid economic growth
-economic heartland
In span of 3-4 centuries, population doubled
-movable type: blocks of individual characters in a frame to make up a page
-mechanical clock
-paper money
-magnetic compass
1000: imported fast ripening rice
- 2 crops instead of 1
- produced more food
Silk Roads: connected China to the West
During Song Dynasty created greatest sea power in world
Tang period:
-created great poetry
Li Bo and Du Fu
Song Dynasty:
-painting reached new heights of beauty
-Daoist influence
Levels of society:
- power of aristocracy faded
-gentry: well-to-do people
-middle class: merchants, etc.
-peasants in countryside
Status of Women:
Nomads of the Asian Steppe
The Rise of the Mongols
The Mongol Empire
Da Fu:

If I could get a mansion with a thousand, ten rooms
A great shelter for all the world's scholars, together in joy
Solid as a mountain, the elements could not move it.
Oh! If i could see this house before me,
I'd happily freeze to death in my broken hut!
Li Bai:

All the birds have flown up and gone
A lonely cloud floats leisurely by.
We never tire of looking at each other
Only the mountain and I.
Steppe: dry grassland
-Manchuria --> Hungary
Geography of the steppe:
-very little rain
-temps. can be extreme
-57 to 96
Pastoralist: domesticated animal herder
Depended on horses and other animals for food, clothing, and housing
Food was meat and mare's milk
Clans: kinship groups
-members were descended from a common ancestor
Steppe Nomads and Settled Societies
Different lifestyles but traded peacefully
Great Wall was built in an attempt to keep out nomads
~1200, Tamujin wanted to unify clans
-took the name Genghis Khan "universal ruler"
Led troops over 21 years and conquered much of Asia
-1st China (took from Jin empire)
-2nd Islamic region
destroyed Utrar, Samarkand, Bukhara
Genghis Khan's success:
-brilliant organizer
-gifted strategist
-adopted new tech. and weapons
-cruelty as weapon
Genghis Khan died from illness is 1227
Ogadai became Great Khan
-died in 1241
Mongol armies drove armies south, east and west
1260- 4 Khanates
Great Khan
Khanate of Chagtai
Khanate of the Golden Horde
Mongols as rulers:
-pop. wiped out
-destroyed ancient irrigation systems
-adopted aspects of cultures
mid 1200s-mid 1300s: stability and law across Eurasia
-Mongol Peace
Kublai Khan Conquers China
Took 3 generations to conquer China
-1234: Ogadai conquered N.China
-1279: Kublai Khan conquered S. China
Kublai Khan became new emperor
-started Yuan Dynasty
-lasted >1 century
Yuan important:
-united China
-opened China to foreign contacts and trade
-tolerated culture
-made few changes to gov.
Kublai spent whole life in China
Palace at Shangdu
Palace at Bejing-new capital
-Kublai enjoyed civilization
-Palace impressed Marco Polo
1274 & 1281: tried to conquer Japan
2nd fleet destroyed by typhoon
Mongol Rule in China
Can conquer on horseback, but cannot rule on horseback
Mongols kept seperate from Chinese
-obeyed different laws
-Mongols and foreigners were given high gov. offices
Kublai Khan
-restored Grand Canal
-extended it 135 miles up to Beijing
-paved 1,100 miles of highways
Encouragment of trade
Mongol Peace
- allowed routes to be safe
- built mail routes
Chinese exported:
-paper $
-playing cards
Marco Polo at Court
Marco Polo: Most famous Euro. to visit China
1275: arrived at Kublai Khan's court
Polo served Kublai Khan fro 17 years
In prison told stories about his travels
-most people did not believe him
End of Mongol Rule
Last years of rule, cracks began to form
Suffered losses in Southeast Asia
-lost lives and equipment
Overtaxed Chinese:
-public works
-luxuries for court
1294: Kublai Khan dies
Rebellions broke out
-fueled by famine, resentment, flood, disease, econ. problems
Ming Dynasty took over
Out of 4 khanates, only Golden Horde stayed in power
Growth of Japanese Civilization
- 4000 islands make up archipelago (island group)
- live on 4 main islands
S. Japan: mild climate with rainfall
only 15% of land is suitable for farming
Early Japan
-clans controlled island
Each clan worshiped own gods and goddesses
Shinto: Way of the gods
-based on respect for the forces of nature
-worshiped ancestors
Kami: divine spirits in nature
Yamato Clan
-established in 5th century
-descended from Amaterasu (sun goddess)
7th century called themselves emperor
Lacked real power
-never overthrown
- dual structure of gov.
Japanese Adapt Chinese Ideas
-from Korea
-accepted in mid-700s
-more complex than Shintoism
Prince Shotoku
-sent missions to Tang China
-Chinese system of writing
-painted landscapes
- gov. systems
9th century ended missions to Tang
Life in Heian Period
Heian (modern day Kyoto) became new capital
794-1185 known as Heian Period
Heian Period
-rules dictated court life
-etiquette important
-Lady Murasaki's
The Tale of Genji
-Sei Shonagon's
The Pillow Book
Feudalism Erodes Imperial Authority
Fejiwara Family ruled during Hian perod
-mid 11th century, power began to slip
Large landowners set up private armies
Feudal System
-farmers traded land for protect.
- warlords grew in power
Samurai: one who serves
-loyal warriors to lords
Samurai lived by Bushido
-Bushido: the way of the warrior
-honorable death>long life
Kamakura Shogunate
1192: Yoritomo, Minamoto leader, receives title of Shogun
-Shogun: supreme general of the emperor's army
Kamakura, Shogun's headquarters
-Shogunate ruled through puppet emperors
-this lasted until 1868
Shoguns assigned daimyo: great lords
-military governor
Kamakura Shoguns turned back 2 Mongol invasions
-drained treasury
Kingdoms of Southeast Asia
Korean Dynasties
Geography of SE Asia:
-between Indian and Pacific oceans
-mainland peninsula
SE Asia never united
- communication was difficult
- seas and straits
Key to power in SE Asia was to control trade routes and harbors.
-lords charged merchants high fees
Influence of India and China
Indian merchants arrived in SE Asia by the first century
Hindu and Buddhist missionaries spread their faiths
SE Asia culture:
-adopted many Hindu beliefs
-wrote in Sanskrit
Chinese in SE Asia:
-spread ideas
-exerted political power
The Khmer Empire
Khmer Empire --> in present day Cambodia
- main power in SE Asia
- peak was around 1200
Rice cultivation:
-helped Khmer become prosperous
-built irrigation systems and waterways
-3 or 4 crops a year
Angkor: Khmer capital
-Angkor Wat: symbolic mountain dedicated to Vishnu
Island Trading Kingdoms
Sailendra Dynasty: agricultural kingdom on Java
Borobudur: Buddhist Temple
-built around 800
-strong Indian influence
Sailendra fell to Srivijaya Empire
Srivijaya empire:
-7th to 13th century
- Palembang was capital
-great center of learning
100 B.C. : Vietnam fell under Chinese control
-remained under control for 1000 yrs.
-broke away from Tang in 900s
Vietnamese culture:
- absorbed Chinese culture
-women had more freedom
Ly Dynasty (1009 - 1225)
-capital at Hanoi
-slowly expanded Vietnam
-kept Mongols away
Foundation of Korea:
- Tan'gun
- founded from descendant of Shang Dynasty

- peninsula
- hot summers and cold winters
- mountainous
Early History
Early history: clans controlled territories
-108 BC Han conquered
-learned central. gov., Buddhism, writing
Han rule:
-Korean tribes gathered to make federations
-developed into 3 nations
-mid 600s, Silla beat others
Silla rule:
- built Buddhist monasteries
-stone and bronze sculptures
-writing system
Koryu Dynasty
935: Wang Kon became king
- new dynasty: Koryu
-lasted 4.5 centuries
Koryu Dynasty:
-cent. gov. modeled from Chinese
-no social mobility
-wealthy had HUGE estates
-spurred rebellions
Mongols in Korea:
- 1231
- demand tribute
- occupation lasted to 1350s
1392: rebels overthrew Koryu
- new dynasty: Choson Dynasty
Koryu Culture
Many achievements:
-celadon pottery
- fine poetry and first national song
0ver 60 years, created canon of Buddhist scriptures
-destoryed by Mongols
-more than 81000 blocks in new set
Full transcript