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Heredity

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by

Scott Rademacher

on 9 January 2014

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Transcript of Heredity

Nucleotide Bases
These are the rungs of the ladder The outside of the ladder is a phosphate and a carbohydrate called "deoxyribose"
2 types of Alleles
Chromosomes!!
HUGE pieces of DNA containing hundreds of genes each. When they are visible in a cell they look like an X
Recessive Alleles
These traits can be hidden by a dominant or seen if both alleles are recessive.
Dominant Alleles
These traits are always seen in a person.
Heredity
A=adenine
A<---->T
C=cytosine
C<---->G
What caused these changes?
Scientists named Watson and Crick discovered a giant molecule in every living thing called DNA. Short for Deoxyribonucleic Acid.

This special molecule contains the directions for how living things are to be build and operate
Genes
Genes are smaller pieces of DNA. Each Gene makes a different protein used to build parts of your body (eye color) or operate your body (digest food). These proteins compose your TRAITS!!

Traits are the characteristics you pass on to your kids
Gregor Mendel
Father of modern genetics
Monk
Studies PEAS
The structure of DNA is a double helix. like a twisted ladder
T=thymine
G=guanine
EVERY LIVING THING has DNA!!
Characteristics are passed from parent to their babies through DNA molecules
the set of traits you inherit from your parents
ALLELES
Different forms of the same gene are called alleles
Example:
Gene = Hair color
(we all have a gene for hair color)

Alleles for this gene would be...
brown
red
blonde
black
Can you come up with another example??
examples include...
left thumb over right when fingers are laced
dimples
freckles
rolling tongue
knuckle hair
Mom's copy of your gene
Dad's copy of your gene
We have 2 copies of the same gene
1 from mom and 1 from dad
These are called...
examples include...
cleft chin
monobrow
attached earlobes
round eyes
2 of the same allele =
HOMOZYGOUS
or
Pure-breed
2 different alleles =
HETEROZYGOUS
or
Hybrid
G
g
The PHysical things you see (color, shape...) are called the PHenotype
example: the pink color of the flower on the pea plant
Bb
The LETTERS are called your
GENOTYPE
because they are the type of "genes" you have...
Full transcript