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NEUROETICA - sintesi e prospettive

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Ric C

on 13 October 2016

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Transcript of NEUROETICA - sintesi e prospettive

acarrara@legionaries.org
http://acarrara.blogspot.com
DAl “
neuro-centrismo
”...


aLla “neuro-
manIa
”...


ALLA “neuro-
FOBIA
”...

THE HUMAN BRAIN PROJECT

THE BRAIN INITIATIVE

2014: anno europeo del cervello

2015: HANDBOOK OF NEUROETHICS
INTEGRAZIONE
ALCUNE DOMANDE ???
Che cos’è il
cervello
?
Come funziona?
Qual’è il ruolo che svolge nell’
esistenza umana
?

È possibile organizzare le
società
alla luce dei progressi neuroscientifici?...
Sono “
io
” qualcosa di più del mio proprio
cervello
?
Cos'è
ciò
che ci rende propriamente
umani
?


NEUROETICA
: UNA STORIA LUNGA QUANTO L'ESSERE UMANO

Edwing Smith – Imhotep: iL PAPIRO EGIZIO E LA PRATICA DELLA TRAPANAZIONE CRANICA
il "primo neurobioeticista":
alcmeone di crotone
e la "teoria cerebro-centrica" (540-500 a.C.)
scribonio Largo (65 d.C.): origine remota della dbs
Galeno - Leonardo da Vinci
Andreas Vesalius: la conoscenza dell'anatomia di una struttura ci conduce a comprendere meglio la sua fisiologia
Thomas Willis
Cerebri Anatome (1664)

aree cerebrali - funzioni mentali
Siglo XIX: Gall vs Flourens
“localizzazionisti” vs “antilocalizzazionisti”
Phineas
Gage

(1848)
Broca
e
Wernicke
teoria cellulare:
Camillo
Golgi
(1843-1926) e
Santiago
Ramón y Cajal
(1852-1934)
psicofarmacologia
: squizofrenia e clorpromacina (
1950
)
Neurocentrismo contemporaneo:
neuroimmagini
Angelo
Mosso
(1846-1910)
narrativa
neuroetica

LE PRIME SOCIETà SCIENTIFICHE RIGUARDANTI IL CERVELLO UMANO:
1940
s…
José Delgado: neuro-electro-stimOLAZZIONE (
1965
)
1989
: “
neuroethicist
” Neurologic Clinics, R. E. Cranford
1991
: Patricia S. Churchland
1993: A. A. Pontius
2002
: Neuroethics: mapping the fiel - DANA Foundation
William Safire
: “quella
parte della bioetica
che si interessa di
stabilire ciò che è lecito, cioè, ciò che si può fare
, rispetto alla terapia e al miglioramento delle funzioni cerebrali, così come si interessa di valutare le diverse forme di interventi e manipolazioni, spesso preoccupanti, compiuti sul
cervello umano

Adina Roskies
:

ETICA
DELLE
NEUROSCIENZE
E
NEUROSCIENZE
DELL'
ETICA

NEJM 1999
neuro-antropologia
: La
persona umana
alla luce del
neurocentrismo

Walter Glannon:
Brain
,
Body
, and
Mind
. Neuroethics with a Human Face

INDUZIONE DI UN
COMPORTAMENTO
PEDOFILO compulsivo (adquired pedophilia) AD OPERA DI UN
TUMORE
orbito-frontales

Jan

e la Revolutionary Prosthetic
Andrew B. Schwartz
Nature 442, 164-171 (13 July 2006):
Neuronal ensemble control of prosthetic devices by a human with tetraplegia

“Although the
mind
has a neurobiological underpinning, the mind is not reducible to the
brain


There is much
more
to the human mind and human behavior than the mobilization of distinct sets of nerve cells…
The
mind
consists of qualitatively new properties not exhibited by physical properties of the
brain
. These include the property of representing the body anD events from the external environment to the brain and making them meaningful to us...
It is also questionable whether the first-person phenomenological feel of subjective experience can be entirely captured by third-person descriptions of brain function. The human mind expresses itself through a chain of molecular events and processes. But the mind is more than just a function of molecules.”
...emerge una preoccupazione di fondo...
la
questione antropologica
maggio 2014
Vol.17,n.6,giugno 2014
Oggigiorno, centinaia di regioni lungo il
genoma

vengono correlate
a disordini riguardanti il
cervello
...
Il
cervello
è il convitato di qualunque umanesimo
Chi è l’uomo, Abraham Heschel:
“ogni generazione possiede la definizione di uomo
che si merita..."
nEUROCENTRISMO
nEUROMANIA VS NEUROFOBIA

riflessione sistematica ed informata
sulla
neuroscienza
ed
interpretazione
della stessa neuroscienza”, includendone, oltre alla neuroscienza, “le correlative scienze della mente (la psicologia in tutte le sue molteplici forme, la psichiatria, l’intelligenza artificiale e così via), allo
scopo
di capire i loro risvolti per l’
autocomprensione umana
e i pericoli e le prospettive delle loro applicazioni”
NOT
ONLY
BRAIN...

Neurobioetica
NEURO-GENOMICA
2015
famiglia di discipline biomediche che studiano la
struttura
e il
funzionamento
del sistema nervoso
a new and neglected area of ethical concern -
neuro-ethics
..........
2015
neuroethics as a
brain-based philosophy
...Thus yet
another hybrid word
is finding its way into current discussions:
neuroethics
...
...other increasingly fashionable hybrid word, '
neuroethics
'...
...it is in response to these prospects that the term '
neuroethics
' has been invented, and it is to
neuroethics
itself that finally i turn...
...a new term has appeared in the
bioethical
and
philosophical
literature:
neuroethics
...
2006
2011
Recent advances in the brain sciences have dramatically improved our understanding of brain function. As we find out more and more about
what
makes us tick, we must
stop and consider the ethical implications of this new found knowledge
.
Will having a new biology of the brain through imaging make us less responsible for our behavior and lose our free will? Should certain brain scan studies be disallowed on the basis of moral grounds? Why is the media so interested in reporting results of brain imaging studies? What ethical lessons from the past can best inform the future of brain imaging?
These compelling
questions
and many more are tackled by a distinguished group of contributors to this,
the first-ever volume on neuroethics
. The wide range of disciplinary backgrounds that the authors represent, from neuroscience, bioethics and philosophy, to law, social and health care policy, education, religion and film, allow for profoundly insightful and provocative answers to these questions, and open up the door to a host of new ones. The contributions highlight the timeliness of modern neuroethics today, and assure the longevity and importance of neuroethics for generations to come.
The past two decades have seen unparalleled developments in our knowledge of the
brain
and
mind
. However, these advances have forced us to confront head-on some significant
ethical issues regarding our application of this information in the real world
—whether using brain images to establish guilt within a court of law, or developing drugs to enhance cognition. Historically, any consideration of the ethical, legal, and social implications of emerging technologies in science and medicine has lagged behind the discovery of the technology itself. These delays have caused problems in the acceptability and potential applications of biomedical advances and posed significant problems for the scientific community and the public alike—for example in the case of genetic screening and human cloning. The
field
of
neuroethics
aims to
proactively anticipate ethical, legal, and social issues at the intersection of neuroscience and ethics, raising questions about what the brain tells us about ourselves, whether the information is what people want or ought to know, and how best to communicate it
.
uno
specifico ambito d'indagine
...di
ciò che apprendiamo su noi stessi e sul nostro "funzionamento"
, grazie principalmente (ma non esclusivamente) alle
neuroscienze
...
un nuovo genere di antropologia
...
...un
ponte
fra le scoperte delle
neuroscienze
e i sistemi dei
valori
umani, all'
interfaccia
con psicologia, filosofia, antropologia, etica normativa, scienze giuridiche e sociali, economia...

una disciplina che si prefigge di
leggere l'uomo, nella sua individualità e globalità, alla luce della neurobiologia
documentata delle neuroscienze...
2010
2010
2011
la centralità delle
"
neuroscienze dell'etica
"
2005
'
neuro
bio
ethics
'
http://www.neurobioethics.org/
(1) the study of
neurological bases of
moral cognition, sense and action

(2) the
field of study
that addresses the moral issues that arise in and from neuroscientific research and the clinical practices
and
social effects/implications that evolve from these investigations

(3) the
reciprocal interaction(s)
between neurological research/clinical practices and other ethically relevant areas of biomedical sciences (e.g. the effects/implications of genetic research on neurological care; use of nanotechnology in neurological research and practice, etc.)
Contemporary neuroethics necessitates consideration and appreciation of an
underlying natural philosophy
, that grounds neuroscience (and its constituent disciplines) and the humanities. Toward this, a number of operational definitions are introductory to an explanation of neuroethics...

Natural
: 1: the inherent character or basic constitution of a person or thing 2: a controlling force in the universe or the sum of such forces in an individual 3: a kind or class usually distinguished by fundamental or essential characteristics
Philosophy
: 1: a discipline comprising as its tasks: metaphysics, logic, epistemology, ethics, engaged in study or pursuit of field/practice 2: a search for a general understanding by chiefly speculative rather than observational means
Science
: an area of knowledge that is an object of study, particularly as concerning general laws; usually as obtained through specific rational methods

Ethics
: a system of beliefs, attitudes and practices reflective of a metaphysical appreciation engaged in moral decision making; a ‘binding’ set of beliefs and faith in such beliefs
Neural/Neuro
: pertaining to or derived from the structure, function (or concept) of nerves, and/or nervous systems, such as brains.
From this, we can consider
two
viable definitions of "
neuroethics
":

1) Inquiry and investigation into the
neural basis
of moral thought, intention and behavior

2) Inquiry and investigation into the moral, ethical and policy-related issues arising in, and from neuroscientific research and its clinical applications

Both of these definitions involve
a solid foundation of the facts of neural function
, the realities of science, medical practice, and social impact, and from this
(a.) recognize the exigencies and issues that are inherent and arise, (b.) the moral obligations and responsibilities involved with these issues, and (c.) how various ethical systems may be utilized to address and resolve these issues, questions and problems. This allows us to construct a normative and applied neuroethics "...from the ground up", as schematically illustrated below.
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