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Copy of Essence and Significance of Literature
Transcript of Copy of Essence and Significance of Literature
1. Prose Drama- a drama in prose form. It consist entirely of dialogues in prose, and is meant to be acted on stage.
2. Essay- a short literary composition which is expository in nature.
3. Prose Fiction (something invented, imagined or feigned to be true)
a. Novel- a long fictitious narrative with a complicated plot.
b. Short story- a fictitious narrative compressed into one unit of time, place and action.
4. Biography and autobiography
a. Biography- a story of a certain person's life written by another who knows him well.
b. Autobiography- a written account of man's life written by himself.
5. Letter- a written message which displays aspects of an author's physiological make up not immediately apparent in his more public writings.
6. Diary- a daily written record of account of the writer's own experience, thoughts, activities or observations.
5. Literature offers us an experience in which we should participate as we read and testing we read by our own experience.
6. Literature does not yield much unless we bring something of ourselves to it.
7. Literature is a faithful reproduction of life in a sense it is a product and a commentary on life process.
8. Literature illuminates life.
9. Literature is our life's story including its struggles, ideas, failures, sacrifice and happiness. (Ang,2006)
STANDARDS OF GOOD LITERATURE
Great literature is distinguishable by the following qualities (Gracia,1993)
1. Literature (litera which means letter) deals with ideas, thoughts and emotions of man thus it can be said that literature is the story of man.
2. Literature in its broadest sense, is everything that has ever written.
3. The best way to understand human nature fully and to know a nation completely is to study literature (Gracia,et.al, 1993)
4.Through literature, we learn the innermost feelings and thoughts of people the most real part of themselves, thus we gain an understanding not only of others, but more importantly, of ourselves anof life itself (Gracia, et.al,1993)
Essence and Significance
10. Literature appeals to man's higher nature and its needs emotional, spiritual, intellectual and creative.
11. Literature is one of the seven arts.
12. Why do people read literature -for information, for amusement, for higher and keener pleasure, for cultural upliftment and for discovery of broader dimensions in life. (Nuggets,1999)
7. Journal- a magazine or periodical especially of a serious or learned nature.
8. Other Prose form:
Two Main Division of Literature
Written in paragraph form
Written in stanza or verse form
Expressed in ordinary form
Expressed in metrical, rhythmitic and figurative language
To the intellect
derived from Greek word poesis meaning "making or creating"
is a kind of language taht says it more intensely than ordinary language does.
5 things about Poetry
poetry is a concentrated thought.
poetry is a kind of word music
poetry expresses all the senses
poetry answers our demand for rhythm
poetry is observation plus imagination
Poetry is a varied as the nature of man unique in some sense along with man's eccentricities, yet clings if appreciated or if deeply imbibed by the reader. (Aguilar,1997)
Types of Poetry
1. Narrative Poetry- a poem that tells a story
a. Epic- a long narrative poem of the largest proportions. A tale centering about a hero concerning the beginning, continuance, and the end of events of great significance war, conquest, strife among men who are in such a position that their struggles take on tribal or national significance.
b. Metrical Romance- a narrative that tells a story of adventure, love and chivalry. The typical hero is a knight on quest.
c. Metrical Tale- a narrative poem consisting usually of a single series of connective events that are simple, and generally do not form a plot.
d. Ballad- The simplest type of narrative poetry. It is short narrative poem telling a single incident in simple meter and stanzas. It is intended to be sung.
e.Popular Ballad- a ballad of wide workmanship telling some simple incidents of adventure, cruelty, passion, or superstition, an incident that shows the primary instincts of man influenced by the restrain of modern civilization.
f. Modern or Artistic- created by poet in imitation of the folk ballad, makes use of many of its devices and conventions.
g. Metrical Allegory- an extended narrative that carries a second meaning along with the surface story.
2. Lyric Poetry- a poem that is ve personal in nature. It expresses the author's own thoughts, feelings, moods and reflections in musical language. It derived its name from the musical instruments, the lyre.
a. Ode- a lyric poem of some length, serious in subject and dignified in style. It is most majestic of the lyric poems. It is written in a spirit of praise of some persons or things.
b. Elegy- a poem written on the death of a friend of the poem.
c. Song- a lyric poem in a regular metrical pattern set to music. These have twelve syllables and slowly sung to the accompaniment of a guitar or banduria.
d. Corridos (kuridos)- these have measures of eight syllables (octosyllabic) and recited to a material beat.
e. Sonnet- a lyric poem containing four iambic pentameter lines, and complicated rhyme.
LITERARY THEORIES AN CRITICISMS: SOME PERSPECTIVES
in reading and analyzing literature, literacy theories are needed to support the reader in understanding the text.
Generally, literary critics clustered these theories of approaches into five groups.
a. Mimetic theory- based on the classical Aristotelian idea that literature imitates or reflects the real world or the world ideal concepts or things from which the subject of literature is derived.
b. Authorial theory- Holds that the author is the soul source of meaning. One studies literature with one eye set on the literary text and another eye on the author's biography
c. Reader response theory- is also called as affective or pragmatic theory. Some call this as the work and its reader. This theory permits varied and numerous interpretations of the literary texts from as many readers.
d. Literary tradition theory- relates the work to its literary history by identifying the tradition to which it belongs.
e. Textual analysis theory- this theory is also known as the work as an entity in itself.
2. Literary Criticism- refers to the individual's way of reading a literary text.
New Criticism or Formalist Criticism (was considered new in the 1930's)
Archetype criticism is influence by Carl Gustav Jung's belief in the collective unconscious of all the people of the world.
Historicism examines the cultured and society from which literature is produced, and how these influences affect literature.
Marxist criticism has a longest history being a 20th century phenomenon.
Feminist criticism combines several critical methods while focusing on the questions on how gender affects a literary work, writer, or reader.
Structuralism is based on the linguistic theories of Ferdinand de Saussure and cultural theories of Claude Levi Strauss.
Deconstruction was initiated by Jaques Derrida late 1960's. assumes that the language refers only to itself rather that to an extratextual reality
READING AND INTERPRETING THE LITERARY TEXT
The Triangle Approach
Categories of Observations
Kinds of questions and comments
The writer's life
Who wrote this?
What kind of person was he r she?
How old was the writer when the poem was written?
The writer's culture
In what place and time was it written?
What was going on at that time?
What events and ideas were important?
What was the worlds view?
How many parts are there to this work?
How are they related?
What key words images, figures of speech are important?
Characters or Speakers
Who is talking here? To whom?
What is their relationship like?
What motivates them?
What conflict do they have?
Ideas, Lessons, Philosophy
What ideas or lessons are expressed or implied here?
What forces have determined these events?
What are we supposed to learn?
yourself as a reader
How does it make me feel?
What features of the work stand out?
What in me those features stand out?
What happens to me if I read this?
What is the present world view in the lace?
Where I am situated?
What events and ideas are important?
Does this refer to historical events?
Is it about something or somebody in the past?
What does this remind me of?
How is it related to other works, storylines, characters, or myths?
Literary Appreciation is a form of close reading that involves the analysis and evaluation of literary works. All literary works are inscribe in language, the readers must have sufficient understanding of linguistic elements before they can make that judgment.
3 levels of reality that the readers must consider
First level- clears ways impediments to the comprehension of the work's literalness, that is, human condition as articulated through proper language.
Second level-produces additional meanings when harmonized with the literal elements.
Third level- compels the heart and mind to examine things in a newer manner.
THREE BASIC APPROACHES TO INTERPRET LITERATURE
1. text- oriented approaches
2. Author- oriented Approaches
3. Reader- Oriented Approaches
To the emotions
To convince, instruct, imitate and reflect
Stir the imagination and set an idea of how l should be.
1. One of the main divisions of literature that is written in paragraph form.
2. One of the main divisions of literature that is written in stanza of verse form.
3. A long fictitious narrative with a complicated plot. It may have a main plot and one more sub plots that develop with the main plot.
4. A fictitious narrative compressed into one unit of time, place and action. It deals with a single character interest, a single emotion or series of emotion called forth by a single situation.
5. A drama in a prose form that consists entirely of dialogue prose, and is meant to be acted on stage.
6. A story of a certain person’s life written by another who knows him well.
7. A written account of man’s life written by himself.
8. A literary theory that is based on the classical Aristotelian idea that imitates or reflects the real world or the world of ideal concepts or things from which the subjects of literature is derived.
9. It refers to the individual’s way of reading a literary text.
Fill in the blanks:
10.________examines the culture and society from which literature is produce, and how this influences affects literature.
11. ________ has the longest history being a 20th century phenomenon.
12.________ combines several critical methods while focusing on the questions on how gender affects a literary work, writer, or reader.
13.________ is influence by Carl Jung's belief in the collective unconscious of all the people in the world.
14._____ is based on the linguistic theories of Ferdinand de Saussure and cultural theories of Claude Levi Strauss.
15.Deconstruction was initiated by ______ in late 1960's.
16-17. Two main divisions of literature.
18-20. Three basic approaches to interpret literature.