Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

River Valley Civilizations

Notes for River Valley Civilizations NC Essential Standard: WH2
by

Joyce Pevler

on 25 August 2013

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of River Valley Civilizations

River Valley Civilizations
Mesopotamia
Ancient Egypt
Ancient Asia
Introduction to Civilizations
Focus Question #3:
What are the four basic things you need in order to survive?
Obj 2.1, 2.2
First Civilizations
- Emerged along rivers
Pros:
Cons:
- Conditions favored farming
- Flood waters spread silt
- Provided regular water supply
- Transportation
- Animals went to rivers to drink
- Flooding caused death
and destruction
- Water had to be
channeled to irrigate crops
Cultural Diffusion
- As people migrated, came into contact with
other people
- Trade caused introduction to new goods
or better production methods
- Wars brought change
RESULT: People shared
and adapted customs
CITIES!!
CIVILIZATIONS!!
What are the characteristics of a civilization??
CIVILIZATION
Cities
Well-organized central government
Complex
Religion
Job
Specilization
Social
Classes
Art &
Architecture
Public
Works
Writing
The Ancient Fertile Crescent Area
The Middle East: "The Cradle of Civilization"
Mesopotamia:
"Land between
the rivers"
Mesopotamia
Location:
- Between Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
- In modern-day Iraq
Tigris Now
Euphrates Now
Mesopotamia
Accomplishments:
- Emergence of the first civilization
- First to use irrigation for crops


- Wheel
- Sail
- Plow
- Writing
Developed drainage ditches to control
water supply
Sumer: The First Civilization
Emerged:

Economy:
3000 BC

Primarily agricultural
Metal working
Trade
Royal family, leading officials, priests

Scribes, merchants, craftspeople

Peasant farmers (90%), slaves (most captured in war)
Society - 3 Classes:
Upper Class

Middle Class

Lower Class
Government
- Theocracy - government by divine authority
- City-states
Ruled by kings
- Fought constantly over land and water rights
Religion
Polytheistic
- Belief in many gods.
- Believed different gods controlled forces of nature
- Offered sacrificed animals, food & wine to the gods
Belief in afterlife
- A place of darkness
- Harsh, even for the good
"the place where they live on dust, their food is mud, ... And they see no light, living in blackness"
Ziggurat
Believed to have served as a pedestal for the gods to descend to Earth
- Temple to a god
- Most important building in every city
* 290 ft high

* Made of bricks - none of which more than 15” long

* 1 building contains
3 million bricks
Ziggurat at Ur
Ur
- Invented the earliest form of writing

- Called Cuneiform - “Wedge-shaped”

- Used for record keeping and teaching
Sumerian Writing
“Wedge-Shaped”
- Used a reed stylus to make wedge-shaped markings on clay tablets

- Tablets then baked in the sun
Cuneiform:
"Wedge-Shaped" Writing
Deciphering Cuneiform
Epic - Video
- “The Epic of Gilgamesh”

- A tale of a Sumerian hero

- Teaches lesson that only gods are immortal
Literature
"Gilgamesh, whiter
are you wandering?
Life, which you look
for, you will never
find.
For when the gods created
man, they let
Death be his share, and
withheld life
In their own hands"
Gilgamesh Epic Tablet
Flood Story
- Tells the story of a great flood that destroys the world

- Similar to Noah's story

- Archeologists have found evidence of a catastrophic flood which devastated this area 4,900 years ago.
Great Flood - Video
Sophisticated Metallurgy Skills at Ur
Mesopotamia Assessment
1. The Fertile Crescent was the land located a) along the Nile river. b) between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. c) between the Euphrates and the Nile rivers. d) between the Tigris and the Nile rivers.

2. Most people in Sumerian city-states were a) priests. b) merchants. c) scribes. d) peasant farmers.
Mesopotamia Assessment
1. The Fertile Crescent was the land located a) along the Nile river. b) between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. c) between the Euphrates and the Nile rivers. d) between the Tigris and the Nile rivers.

2. Most people in Sumerian city-states were a) priests. b) merchants. c) scribes. d) peasant farmers.
Focus Question #4:
Write a paragraph on the following question:
Why were rivers important to
early civilizations?
Mesopotamian
Civilizations
Obj. 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4
Formed by rulers battling for power

-Helped end war between neighboring communities
-Created common bonds among people

-For conquered, defeat was painful and often cruel
First Empires
PROS:
CONS:
The World’s First Empire: Akkad
- Located north of Sumer

- Empire did not last long
Leader: Sargon
- Conquered Sumerian city-states

- Set up first empire in 2300BC
After Sargon’s death, invaders destroyed his empire
The
Babylonian
Empire
- 1790BC

- Established new empire over much of both Akkad and Sumer
Hammurabi
Hammurabi's Code
- First attempt of a ruler to codify (arrange and put down in writing) the laws that would govern a state

- Almost 300 laws carved onto a stone pillar so that everyone would see them
One section codified CRIMINAL law -
the branch of law that deals with offenses against others, such as robbery and murder.
Another section codified CIVIL law -
the branch that deals with private rights and matters, such as business contracts, taxes, and property inheritance.
Hammurabi, the Judge
- Called for harsh punishments against criminals

- Punishments varied according to social status

- Enforced obdience of children to parents
- Principle of "an eye for an eye"


- Largest group of laws covered marriage and family
Partial text of Hammurabi's law code
Hittites
- Began to conquer Asia Minor (2000 BC)
- Had strong army with chariots
- Conquered Babylon (1595 BC)
- Borrowed from Mesopotamian and Egyptian culture
- Had a law code less harsh than Hammurabi’s
- Lasted until about 1200 BC
Fall of Babylon
The
Assyrian
Empire
Military Tactics
- Advance planning, which involved building bridges & roadways and weakening city walls



- Reputation: Fiercest Warriors
- Assaulting besieged city with arrows
- Ramming open gates & storming city
Weapons and Equipment
- Iron-tipped spears, battering rams, daggers, swords

- Armor & helmets

- Leather & metal skirts
Governing
- Organized conquered territories into a system of dependent provinces ruled by Assyrian officials

- Used military power and cruelty to control empire
- Valued reading & writing
Culture
- Built magnificent cities & buildings

- Created fine carved sculptures depicting military campaigns & lion hunts
+Library of Assurbanipal
*First modern library
Death Penalty
Fall of Assyria
- Chaldeans Defeated the Assyrains in about 612 BC
- Spent a lot of money on Babylon
- Built Hanging Gardens
Descended from Hammurabi's Babylonians
- At its height during the rule of Nebuchadnezzer (605-562 BC)


- Empire collapsed in 539 BC after being defeated by the Persians
The
Persian
Empire
Persians
Located in modern Iran
King Cyrus created huge empire -- 2,000 miles
Conquered People
Treated well:
- Did not destroy conquered cities
- Did not harm conquered people
- Allowed people to practice their own religion
Darius I
- Expanded and unified Empire
- Divided land into provinces
- Put royal governors in charge called satraps
- Introduced a uniform system of coinage and encouraged money economy
- Before was a barter economy -- exchanging one set of goods or services for another
Royal Road
- Built to unite large empire
- Ran 1,677 miles
- Messengers could travel distance in 7 days
The
Phoenicians
Phoenicians
Transmitters of Civilizations







Spread Middle Eastern civilization around the Mediterranean through trade networks
Phoenician Sea Routes
Occupied string of citites along the eastern Mediterranean coast
Contributions:
- Glass from sand

- Purple dye from a tiny sea snail
Phoenician Alphabet
Created the 1st alphabet – only consonants used
Mesopotamia Assessment #2
1. What leader was the first to codify the laws that would govern his state? a) Cyrus the Great b) Sargon c) Hammurabi
d) Darius

2. Who invented the alphabet? a) the Persians b) the Babylonians c) the Phoenicians d) the Assyrians
Mesopotamia Assessment #2
1. What leader was the first to codify the laws that would govern his state? a) Cyrus the Great b) Sargon c) Hammurabi
d) Darius

2. Who invented the alphabet? a) the Persians b) the Babylonians c) the Phoenicians d) the Assyrians
Focus Question #5
The Ancient Greek Historian, Herodotus, called Egypt the “gift of the Nile.”

What do you think he meant by this statement?
Obj. 2.1, 2.2, 2.4
Geography
Borders:
- East, south, and west by desert
- North by the Mediterranean Sea
Located on the continent of Africa
Upper Egypt
- From 1st cataract & up

Lower Egypt
- From delta down 100 miles
Regions
Nile River
- Flowed 600 miles through Ancient Egypt

- Near Mediterranean splits into several channels called the Delta ~ 125 miles across
- More water:– homes flooded & people killed
- Less water: crops died & famine occurred
Source of life for Ancient Egypt
Indundation -- annual flooding
- Silt deposits provided fertilization of crops
- Not alwys same amount of water every year
Flooding of the Nile
Transportation
Boat MOST important form of transportation

Wood scarce

- Only warships & seagoing ships made of wood
- Most used papyrus boats
Menes: Unifier of Upper & Lower Egypt
Power struggles, crop failures, and cost of pyramids contributed to the collapse of the Old Kingdom
Hatshepsut
encouraged trade

Ramses II expanded Egyptian rule to Syria

Egyptian power
declined
Three Kingdoms of Ancient Eygpt
Old
Kingdom
Middle
Kingdom
New
Kingdom
Pharaohs organized a
strong central state,
were absolute rulers,
and were considered gods.

Egyptians built the pyramids at Giza
Large drainage project created arable farmland
Traders had contacts with Middle East and Crete

Corruption and
rebellions were
common

Hyksos invaded and occupied the delta
region
Powerful pharaohs created a large empire that reached the Euphrates River
Society/Class System
PHARAOH
VIZIER
HIGH PRIESTS, PRIESTESSES & NOBLES
Served pharaoh, gods and goddesses
SCRIBES, MERCHANTS, ARTISANS
PEASANT FARMERS AND SLAVES
Earthly leader; considered a god
Chief Minister, supervised government & taxes
Highly skilled, record keepers
Worked in fields and provided labor
- Could inherit property
- Could divorce with compensation
- Equal to men in the eyes of the law
- Could be merchants
Women's Roles
- Married young
- Ran household
- Educated children
Writing
Emerged around 3000BC

Literacy not widespread

Scribes depended upon for all writing
Writing
- Thin sharpened reed dipped in ink
- Wrote on papyrus
- Ink made by mixing water with soot or charcoal
- Colors made from ground-up minerals
Writing Utensils
Papyrus
Used to keep important information
Hieroglyphics
Means "priest carvings"


Preserved records
Hieroglyphic Cartouche
1 10 100 1000 10,000 100,000 1,000,000
Egytpian Math
What number is this???
= 2525
- Written on papyrus
Demotic Writing
- Simpler form of writing
- Faster to write
- Developed by scribes
The Rosetta Stone
Stone found by Napoleon’s army in 1799
General Information
After fall of Egypt, hieroglyphic writing was forgotten



Was written in 196 BC
3 languages on stone:
- hieroglyphic
- demotic
- Greek
Rosetta Stone
Jean-Francois Champollion
Deciphered the Rosetta Stone 1822
Pyramids
Can you solve the "Riddle of the Sphinx"??
What walks on four legs in the morning, two legs in the afternoon, and three legs in the evening, and whose speed is least when on the most legs?
Humans
Step pyramid at Saqqara
- 198-ft tall
- Stepped sides intended to symbolize a staircase up which the pharaoh could climb to heaven
Served as tombs for the pharaohs who built them
Served to stimulate the economy
47 pyramids of pharaohs known throughout Egypt
Pyramids
Giza Pyramid Complex
- Most famous -- near Cairo
- Built for the pharaohs Menkaure, Khufu, and Khafre
- Also contain 3 small pyramids built for their wives & children
Great Pyramid of Giza (Pyramid of Khufu)
- Built around 2550BC

- Largest pyramid -– covering more than 13 acres

- Each side is 755 ft wide at the bottom

- Height of 481 feet
Great Pyramid of Giza (Pyramid of Khufu)
Built of limestone blocks

Stone blocks can weighed between 21/2 to 15 tons

Used more than 2 million blocks

Each stone perfectly cut
Pyramids

Originally had a smooth, polished casing on the exterior
Plan of the Great Pyramid of Khufu
Inside the Great Pyramid
Inside the Great Pyramid
Valley of the Kings
Building the Pyramids
Religious Beliefs
Ka - The Life Force
- Spirit that lived in the body until death
- Once person died, it also would unless provided exact image
- Needed food to survive
- Stayed in tomb with mummy
- Could take any shape
- It is the link between life on earth and the afterlife
- Could fly out of tomb,– but returned at night
Ba
- Polytheistic
- Ra


- Osiris

- Set
Religious Beliefs
Sun god
Most important god in Egypt
Ruler of the underworld; god of the dead
Represented everything that threatened harmony in Egypt; god of chaos
Egyptians believed that the afterlife would be much like life on Earth

Result, they buried the dead with everything they would need for eternity

Mummification was used to help preserve the body so the soul could use it in the afterlife.
Mummification
Materials Used in Mummification
1. Linen 4. Beeswax 8. Nile Mud
2. Sawdust 5. Resin 9. Linen Pads
3. Lichen 6. Natron 10. Frankinsense
7. Onion
Mummification Process
Process took 70-days
All the organs removed - except the heart
Body preserved in salt and wrapped
Preparation for the Afterlife
Final Judgement
Anubis Thoth Horus Osiris
Heart Ammit Feather
Pharaohs
Hatsheptsut
- 1473 - 1458 BCE
- Became regent when husband died - 1st powerful female ruler

- Encouraged trade with lands along the Eastern Mediterranean
- Ruled as pharaoh - refused to allow son to rule
Akhenaton: First Monotheist
1352-1336 BCE
Nefertiti
Pushed Egyptian rule northward as far as Syria
Helped to create great monuments of Egypt
Ramses II
After his death, Egyptian power slowly declined and later Egypt was invaded
1290-1224 BC
Ramses II's Mummified body
Computerized model
of Ramses II
King Tutankhamon
Entrance to Tut’s Tomb
Discovered by Howard Carter
Completely preserved tomb
King Tut’s Tomb
Treasures From Tut’s Tomb
Black Ink
First Ox-Drawn Plows
365 Day Calendar and Leap Year
Paper
First Triangular Shaped Pyramids
Organized labor
Hieroglyphics as an early system of writing
Creation of a written history
Sails
Use of make-up
Sun Dials
Water clocks
Ancient Egypt
Achievements & Accomplishments
1. Why were the Nile floods so important to the Egyptians?
a) They created a much needed supply of drinking water.
b) The Egyptians held religious ceremonies when the flood came.
c) The floodwaters deposited silt, which made the land rich for farming.
d) The floodwaters kept away potential invaders.

2. Which of the following was an achievement of the Old Kingdom? a) The Egyptians drained land for farming. b) The Egyptians built the pyramids. c) Ramses II expanded Egyptian rule to Syria. d) The Egyptian empire reached the Euphrates.
Egypt Assessment
1. Why were the Nile floods so important to the Egyptians?
a) They created a much needed supply of drinking water.
b) The Egyptians held religious ceremonies when the flood came.
c) The floodwaters deposited silt, which made the land rich for farming.
d) The floodwaters kept away potential invaders.

2. Which of the following was an achievement of the Old Kingdom? a) The Egyptians drained land for farming. b) The Egyptians built the pyramids. c) Ramses II expanded Egyptian rule to Syria. d) The Egyptian empire reached the Euphrates.
Egypt Assessment
Focus Question #6

Why might a geographic barrier, such as mountains or desert, make it easier for a civilization to emerge and flourish?
Obj. 2.1, 2.2
The Four Old-World
River Valley Civilizations
Comparative Timeline
Ancient India
Wall of Mountains separated India from the rest of Asia
Himalayas
Hindu Kush
This created an Indian Sub-Continent
A large area of land joined to a continent, but usually separated by mountains or other geographical feature
Geographic Barriers
Indus Valley
- Present day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh
- Two major rivers central to life
Indus, Ganges
- Monsoons
Seasonal winds that bring rain
Depend on this and floods for crops
Geographic Barriers:
The Himalayas
Geographic Barriers:
The Hindu Kush
Ganges River
Indus River
Indus Valley Civilizations
Civilization comparable to Egyptian and Mesopotamian

Influenced a larger area
Influences
Over 1052 cities discovered
Cities
Consists of two major cities 400 miles apart
Mohenjo-Daro
Harappa
Mohenjo-Daro
Means “hill of the dead”
Mohenjo-Daro
Harappa
Houses as tall as three stories
- Created by oven-baked bricks
Ancient Indian Cities
- Grid-like layout of cities
- Uniform houses suggests no social class division
Government
Identically planned cities and construction suggests a strong-central government
Ruled by priest-kings
Trade
Artifacts found show that Sumer and Indus Valley traded for 350 years
Traded long distances
Indoor plumbing with running water

Plumbing system rivals 19th century systems
Ahead of Their Time
Bathrooms connected to sewers
A bathroom on a private residence
The Great Bath
First known water tank
Measurements: About 40 feet north-south and 23 feet wide, with a maximum depth of 7.8 feet
House Layout
Ceramics
Jewelry
Harrappan Writing
Undecipherable to date
Decline
- Domination of an indigenous people ? Who rebelled ?
- Foreign invasion?
- Gradual decline ?
What we do know:
climate shift: the monsoon patterns
flooding
destruction of the forests
migrations of new peoples: the Aryans
The Vedic
Age

(1500 BCE - 500 BCE)
Aryan Migration
Aryan Migration/“Invasion”
No evidence of large-scale military conquest
Gradual infiltration
No record system – not literate

Early Aryans
Pastoral economy: sheep, goats, horses, cattle
The Vedas
Written in Sanskrit – “sacred tongue”
Four total

- Passed down from priests and singers
Oral tradition
Written down in the 500’s
- Veda means "knowledge"
- Religious and literary works
The Vedas was so important it was called the Vedic Age
1200 BCE-600 BCE
Hindu core of beliefs:
hymns and poems.
religious prayers.
magical spells.
lists of the gods and goddesses.
oldest work.
Rig Veda - holy book
Reflects on the importance of duty and the immortality of the soul
Mahabharata
India's greatest epic
Story of the Aryan tribes fight to control the Ganges River region
Ramayana
Story of Rama and Sita
Sita is kidnapped and Rama rescues her
Rama seen as a model of virtue
Sita honored as the ideal woman --– remained loyal and obedient to her husband through her hardships
Beginnings of Caste System
Aryans vastly outnumbered
Worried intermarriage with locals would cause them to lose their cultural identity
Set up system that forbid marriage outside of their class
Caste System
New social group develops
In time system changes and becomes based on profession
Caste - a class into which a person is born and must remain his or her entire life
Varna (Social Hierarchy)
Brahmins
Kshatriyas
Vaishyas
Shudras
Pariahs [Harijan] = Untouchables
Brahmins
Priests
Privileges
Exempt from all taxes
Monopoly on learning; Did no actual physical work
Protected their knowledge of the Vedas
Sudras never allowed to hear or recite anything from them

If Sudra overheard, law said molten lead be poured into his ears - if recited a verse, his tongue was to be split
Kshatriyas
Rulers and Warriors
Highest honor was considered to be to die in battle
Were permitted to learn, but not teach the Vedas
Duties were to exhibit courage, bravery, cleverness, fearlessness, generosity, and knowledge of how to rule a kingdom
Vaisyas
Herders
Farmers
Merchants
Craftsmen
Shudras
Farm workers, servants, laborers
Duty was to support the other varnas
Sudra means “slave”
Was a way to keep the dark-skinned people conquered by the Aryans “in their place”
Pariahs/Untouchables
Means "outcastes"
Did not belong to any caste
Upper Varnas believed they would become defiled or polluted if they touched them
Performed tasks no one else would do



Discriminated against
- Cleaning and tanning animal hides
- Sweeping streets
- Dealing with corpses
- Could not enter a temple frequented by Brahmins
- Could not draw water from a well used by the higher Varnas
- Could not send their children to Hindu school
1913
- A child of a rich Hindu fell into a fountain
- No one around to help the mother except a passing untouchable
- Untouchable volunteered to dive into fountain & rescue child
- Mother refused his help

So strong were her feelings of revulsion toward the untouchable that she let her child drown rather than have his savior defile the water in the fountain
The Caste System
The mouth?
The arms?
The legs?
The feet?
WHO IS . . .
Brahmins
Kshatriyas
Vaishyas
Shudras
The Vedic Age
The foundations for Hinduism were established!
India Assessment
1. Pariahs means? a) Untouchables b) Priests c) Warriors d) Outcastes

2. The two sacred rivers in India are the a) Tigris and Euphrates b) Indus and Ganges c) Tigris and Indus d) Euphrates and Ganges
1. Pariahs means? a) Untouchables b) Priests c) Warriors d) Outcastes

2. The two sacred rivers in India are the a) Tigris and Euphrates b) Indus and Ganges c) Tigris and Indus d) Euphrates and Ganges
India Assessment
Ancient China
China vs US in Size
Geography
Most isolated of all early river civilizations
Surrounded by natural barriers
- North: Gobi Desert
- East: Pacific Ocean
- South: Himalayan Mountains
- West: Taklaman Desert
Not much contact with the outside world.
Isolation led to the belief that China was the center of the universe
China
United States
TAKLIMAKAN DESERT
GOBI DESERT
PACIFIC OCEAN
HIMALAYA MOUNTAINS
Fertile plain between two main rivers
Huang He - Yellow River
- Name from loess (the yellow silt) left behind
- Nickname: "River of Sorrows: due to flooding.
Yangtze River – Long River
Rivers
Chinese Dynasties
Dynasty – long line of rulers that belong to the same family
China ruled by powerful dynasties for nearly 3000 years

Emperor – ruler of China
Power of the Emperor was absolute – complete control
Shang Dynasty
- 1st Chinese Dynasty, 1532-1027 BCE


- Mainly a farming society, but also had great Bronze artisans

- Built cities with huge earthen walls protecting outside
* Rich - lived inside city walls
* Peasants - lived outside of city walls
- Shang are first to leave written records
- Family was highly important, with men leading households
- Early Shang religion was polytheistic, worshipping nature-based gods
Shang also worshipped ancestors (showing importance of family)
Priests communicated with the gods via Oracle Bones (1st writing)
Oracle Bones
- Animal bone or tortoise shells

- Priests scratched questions for gods then applied heat until it cracked

- Priests would then interpret the cracks
Writing
- Characters developed 4000 years ago

- Thousands of characters

- Today students must memorize up to 10,000 characters to read a newspaper

- Same written language used throughout China, but different spoken language used
Zhou Dynasty
Dynastic Cycle begins with Zhou
(1027-256 BCE)
- Take over Shang; adopt much of their culture
NEW DYNASTY
- Zhou claim Shang lost Mandate of Heaven
Divine right to rule
Used to justify rebellion against Shang
- Brings peace
- (re)Builds infrastructure
- Land given to peasants
- People protected
AGING DYNASTY
- Ignores infrastructure
- Taxes heavily
- People unprotected
- Government corruption/neglect
PROBLEMS
- Floods, famines, earthquakes
- Invasions/revolts

Dynasty LOSES Mandate of Heaven
NEW DYNASTY
CLAIMS MANDATE OF HEAVEN
DYNASTIC
CYCLE
Qin Dynasty
Qin Shi Huangdi defeats other nobles from the end of the Zhou to start the Qin dynasty.

Shortest dynasty in Chinese history (221-207 BCE)
Shi Huangdi set up an autocratic dynasty
Ruler with ynlinited power used in an arbitrary manner
Cruel to his people (used fear)
Considered to be the 1st true emperor
Standardized most things including language
Had book burnings (to limit knowledge)
China is named after the Qin Dynasty

Built (Completed) the Great Wall of China to defend China from invasion from the north

Shi Huangdi built a huge terra cotta army to honor his tomb
Well that farmers were digging when they discovered tomb in 1974
How army was found --broken into small pieces
Pit #1 contains over 6,000
Reconstructing Army
Individual Faces
Archer without bow
China Assessment
1. The Mandate of Heaven is? a) The right to kill the emperor b) The divine right to rule all c) The divine right to rule the peasants d) The right to take over the nobles

2. The early civilizations of China had a) Contact with Mesopotamian civilizations b) Contact with Egyptian civilizations c) Contact with Indus civilizations d) Contact with little outside civilizations
1. The Mandate of Heaven is? a) The right to kill the emperor b) The divine right to rule all c) The divine right to rule the peasants d) The right to take over the nobles

2. The early civilizations of China had a) Contact with Mesopotamian civilizations b) Contact with Egyptian civilizations c) Contact with Indus civilizations d) Contact with little outside civilizations
China Assessment
Using your copy of Hammurabi's Code determine the punishment for the following . . .
What Would Hammurabi Do??
What should happen to someone caught stealing something?
What should happen to someone caught stealing something?

Code 22
If anyone is committing a robbery and is caught, then he shall be put to death
What happens to a person who accuses another falsely?
What happens to a person who accuses another falsely?

Code 3
If anyone bring an accusation of any crime before the elders, and does not prove what he has charged, he shall, if it be a capital offense, be put to death.
What should happen if a person got into a fight with his social equal and punched him in the face causing him to lose a tooth and an eye?
Code 196
If a man put out the eye of another man, his eye shall be put out.
Code 200
If a man knock out the teeth of his equal, his teeth shall be knocked out.
What should happen to a boy who slaps his father?
What should happen to a boy who slaps his father?

Code 195
If a son strikes his father, they shall cut off his hand.
If a free man hits another free man, what should happen?
Code 203
If a free-born man strike the body of another free-born man of equal rank, he shall pay one gold mina.
Note: 1 gold mina = $6,433.50 in US dollars
What should happen if a person smacks another person of higher rank?
Code 202
If anyone strike the body of a man higher in rank than he, he shall receive sixty blows with an ox-whip in public.
Let's Check . . .
What should happen if a person got into a fight with his social equal and punched him in the face causing him to lose a tooth and an eye?
If a free man hits another free man, what should happen?
What should happen if a person smacks another person of higher rank?
Full transcript