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Elements of Civilazation
Transcript of Elements of Civilazation
Sarah Kate Feferman 7A An urbAn urban area where a large amount of people reside and work.an area where a large amount of people reside and work. An urban area where a large amount of people reside and work Sumerian Cities Sumer had independent city states City-states such as Eidu, Ur, and Uruk expanded and accumulated political and economic control of the circumambient areas The cities had walls built around them for protection from neighboring civilizations. They had defense towers on them every 30-35 feet. The wall at Uruk stretched six miles around the city. SSyrian Cities 50 percent of the population lives in large cities in Syria
Cities have an ancient "core," which the city was built around, surrounded by more modern developments. Syria's largest cities include, in order of population, are Aleppo, Damascus, Daraa, and Deir ez-Zor. The ruling body of civilization that makes laws.
A group of people who enforce the laws created by the government, defend their ideals, and protect the people. Government and Armies Sumerian Government and Armies Sumerians invented the first government. Originally, politcal power belonged to the citizens, but rivalry between the city states increased, and each adopted a king. In around 2,800 BCE, Etana, the ruler of Kish, united the Sumerian city states. Thereafter, Kish, Erech, Ur, and Lagash battled for control of the empire, rendering Sumer weak to enemies, such as the Elamites and the Akkadians. Etana of Kish Sumer had the first recorded military organization. Soldiers carried short spears, slings and bows, battle-axes, and spears. City-states were in almost perpetual war with one another, the first recorded one was between Lagash and Umma in 2,525 BCE. The Sumerian military used a sort of early chariot harnessed to ongars. Syrian Government and Armies Syria's government type is a republic under an authoritarian regime. Their president is Bashar al-Assad, who has been in power since 2000. Syria is currently in a civil war between the ruling
Ba'ath Party and those who oppose it. This armed
conflict is part of the Arab Spring. It has claimed the lives of over 60,000 Syrians, mostly civilians. The reason for the war is that Assad's government is totalitarian, and the people have no freedom. Religion
Form of worship used to explain daily occurrences and natural phenomena, which includes worshiping one or more deities. Sumerian Religion
In the center of Sumerian cities
were huge temples called Ziggurats.
Until about 2,500 BCE when military kings
came to power, the leaders of Sumer were
The En, or high priests. Sumer had a polytheistic
religion, and myths were passed down by oral
tradition. Sumerian deity Anu, god of heaven Syrian Religion
Muslims make up more than
90 percent of Syria's population. The
followers of Islam believe in the words
of the Prophet Muhammad. Social Structure
The different classes that make up civilization, providing a form of structure including the lower class/slaves, middle class/minor nobility, upper class/royalty. Sumerian Social Structure
The Sumerian upper class contained
nobles, royalty, priests, warriors, and officials.
The middle class, also known as the "Freeman"
class, contained merchants, traders, and artisans.
The lowest class was made up of slaves. Most sumerians
were farmers whom were probably in the middle class. Syrian Social Structure
In Syria, government officials
and light skinned people are
at the top of the social ladder.
Landowners are in the middle.
Darker skinned people and peasants
are in the lowest class. People in
different classes do not socialize with
one another. Writing
A form of literature that was developed by early civilizations. It can be used for fictional story-telling as well as factual record keeping. Sumerian Writing
The Sumerian poem "Epic of Giglamesh"
is one of the first surviving works of literature.
It centers upon the king of Uruk Giglamesh and his
friend Enkidu. After Enkidu is sentenced to death, Giglamesh embarks on a quest for immortality.
Sumerians used symbols called cuneiforms for writing. Syrian Writing
The main style of Syrian writing
is social realism. The literature of Syria
has been described as "literature of political
commitment." Many young Syrians read science
fiction as an escape from the harsh political reality
that is Syria. The Syrian alphabet is arabic. Artistic and Intellectual Development
The progress of people in creative endeavors such as the arts towards a change in style.
The progress of people towards their understanding of the world, their lives, and nature. Sumerian Artistic and Intellectual Development
The city of Lagash was very important for artistic development. The king Gudea brought copper, cedar, and other supplies to Lagash, which expanded the Sumerin's knowledge and artistic skill. The king Gilglamesh of whom the famous poem is written was famous for expanding Sumer's art and architectural skills. Syrian artistic and intellectual development
In the early 1900s, Syria had a cultural revolution
that was responsible for most of the country's
growth in art and knowledge. This revolution, called
Al-Nahda, started in Egypt and then spread to the Ottoman countries, including Syria. This was a sort of
renaissance in the small middle eastern nation, as knowledge of the printing press came to the middle east. Civilization
An advanced state of intellectual, cultural, and material development in human society, marked by progress in the arts and sciences, the extensive use of record-keeping, including writing, and the appearance of complex political and social institutions.