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Research Question and Outline

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by

Abdulatif Al Mutawa

on 19 September 2012

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Transcript of Research Question and Outline

Formulating Research Questions and Bui ding Effective Outlines Elements of a research Question Topic Focus accounts for 50% of the work to write a good essay Ex) Chain Smoking The topic is usually a noun or a noun phrase The focus is the information you look for that is related to the topic Why do we need to formulate a research question and an outline
before writing a paper? advantages = general > specific Goal of the paper is clear Provides the writer with a specific focus Organize ideas Smooth flow of argument Explains the relationship between ideas Ordered overview Presents the material in a logical manner Saves you from ...... Clear logical discussion Advantage = Disadvantages ????????? To what extent does nicotine
have an effect on a person's cigarette addiction? Nicotine Effect of nicotine on cigarette addiction So if the focus is on the effect of nicotine on cigarette addiction disregard The effect of tar on cigarette addiction The psychological aspect of cigarette addiction Types of focus Cause Effect Comparison Definition Classification Problem and Solution Process Argument When the research question asks you to compare two or more things What are the similarities and differences between how cigarette smokers are looked upon in western and eastern cultures? what are the similarities and differences between social smokers and chain smokers Phrases that will usually appear:
Compare
contrast
similarity
differences The focus of this question is the cultural position of cigarette
smoking in the two cultures The focus of this question is the types of smoking Always answered by a yes or a no and then asks for an explanation of your opinion. Should smoking be permitted in public indoor areas? In this question the focus is the opinion and why is it right In this question, the writer will make up his mind and the look for information that will support his decision The writer will disregard information like:
causes of smoking
types of smoking
and the science behind smoking The focus of this question is smoking indoors Research Questions with more than one focus In what ways does understanding the causes of nicotine addiction help a person quit smoking? Focus #1 Causes of nicotine addiction Cause Focus #2 method of stopping addiction Process How does the belief of irrationality in life influence people's behavior towards religion? Focus #1 Definition of the concept of irrationality Definition Focus #2 People's behavior towards religion Effect Writing about the effects and consequences of a particular action or event Sometimes uses words like:
Negative and Positive
consequences
side effects What are the social consequences of cigarette addiction? This type of focus always presents a problem or a dilemma and gives but sometimes hints to a solution to that particular problem Sometimes starts with "how can" How can people help the smoke addicts in their society? Creating a Research Question Bias Interesting Familiar Easy To what extent is Bias related to emotion and reason? “Bats occupy a wide variety of roosts in both natural and man-made structures. More than a half of the approximately 1.100 species of living bats use plants exclusively or opportunistically as roosts. Others seek shelter in caves, rock crevices, mines, tombs, building, bridges, and other man-made structures. Some bats roost in cavities constructed by other animals, including bird nests and nests of ants and termites, whereas others roost in exposed places on branches and the trunks of trees.” (Kunz & Lumsden, 2003) Where do bats usually roost? “Bats occupy a wide variety of roosts in both natural and man-made structures. More than a half of the approximately 1.100 species of living bats use plants exclusively or opportunistically as roosts. Others seek shelter in caves, rock crevices, mines, tombs, building, bridges, and other man-made structures. Some bats roost in cavities constructed by other animals, including bird nests and nests of ants and termites, whereas others roost in exposed places on branches and the trunks of trees.” (Kunz & Lumsden, 2003) Overnight camping is a treasured experience for many visitors to national parks. Some people camp out on their own in search of isolation in the back country, but for most, a designated campground is their home for the night. An open fire for cooking and socialising is a traditional part of this experience. Campfires produce smoke particles that are small enough to enter the respiratory tract. In sensitive people, such as the young and the elderly, this can lead to pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases. Inversions often occur at night over national parks, trapping the smoke near the surface. ( DAVID WELCH, Physical Sciences Advisor, Natural Resources Branch, Parks Canada,) To what extent does camping in the wilderness has an effect on its surroundings? Overnight camping is a treasured experience for many visitors to national parks. Some people camp out on their own in search of isolation in the back country, but for most, a designated campground is their home for the night. An open fire for cooking and socialising is a traditional part of this experience. Campfires produce smoke particles that are small enough to enter the respiratory tract. In sensitive people, such as the young and the elderly, this can lead to pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases. Inversions often occur at night over national parks, trapping the smoke near the surface. ( DAVID WELCH, Physical Sciences Advisor, Natural Resources Branch, Parks Canada,) When a research question asks for a detailed explanation or the definition of the topic What are the stages of nicotine addiction? Nicotine addiction What are the symptoms of nicotine addiction? Symptoms Some research questions are about putting a topic into a group or class, in other words, classifying it. How are smokers classified? How are the stages of nicotine addiction classified The focus of these research question will be what are the groups that one individual can be put depending of the level of his addiction. •How something is done or how something happens. How do people become addicted to cigarettes? Social smocking Smoking alone Get used to it Explains the reason or cause behind a particular event or action Why do young people become addicted to cigarettes? Psychological problems Nicotine Stress Why using a cell phone while driving can be dangerous? Lack of concentration Fatal accidents Expensive fines Focused Reading Guidelines what are the effects of camping? Overnight camping is a treasured experience for many visitors to national parks. Some people strike out on their own in search of isolation in the back-country, but for most, a designated campground is their home for the night. An open fire for cooking and socializing is a traditional part of this experience. Campfires produce smoke particles that are small enough to enter the respiratory tract. In sensitive people, such as the young and the elderly, this can lead to pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases. Inversions often occur at night over national parks, trapping the smoke near the surface. (- DAVID WELCH, Physical Sciences Advisor, Natural Resources Branch, Parks Canada,) Note taking Methods Using Note Cards Writing Margin Notes Taking Notes on a Computer Using your highlighted sources Creating a Rough Outline Outlines have two mains aims
Your work outline is for your eyes only
It needn’t be a logical analysis It begins with your Research Question and the Focus What health problems can a smoker receive? The Linear sequence Health Social Life Community pollution Influence underage smoking community laws Cancer Cardiovascular disease Lung infections Bad smell Get new friends limits your physical activity What are the health problems that a smoker might receive? Smoke addiction Brainstorming a List Sorting out your Notes Color Coding The End
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