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Copy of Politics
Transcript of Copy of Politics
and the Challenge
in the Philippines
by: Cynthia Bautista I. Introduction: II.The Philippines: A New Democracy in Asia? II.The Philippines: A New Democracy in Asia? •People power- manifestation of direct democracy at work the massing up of people to express their dissatisfaction with or rejection of existing government
•Is civil society homogenous or unitary in its demands, goals and ethical values or is it an arena of coalitions or like-minded organizations as well as the “realm of contradictory desiderata of particular interests?”
VI. Concluding Remarks II.The Philippines: A New Democracy in Asia? -People Power I
-Earlier period (1946-1971)- traditional political clans who controlled the country’s policy-making institutions successfully blocked equity-oriented reforms
-Congress was bagged by the country’s most powerful politico-economic elites.
-The restoration of electoral politics and the civil and political freedoms that allow for “contestation with participation” III.Completing Democracy (Yes) or Deepening it (No)? III.Completing Democracy or Deepening it? -Empirical investigation= 5 processes by Schedler 1.Avoiding democratic breakdown 2.Preventing democratic erosion 3.Completing democracy 4.Deepening democracy 5.Organizing democracy III.Completing Democracy or Deepening it? IV.Civil Society and Democratization -Unique features of civil society -Underground organization (anti-dictatorship struggle) to development work in non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and people’s organizations (POs), nonprofit educational institutions and civic and religious groups IV.Civil Society and Democratization Divergent views: the role of People Power 2 in democratic consolidation -Middle Forces: “picture perfect”- manifestation of direct democracy or one that demonstrated the “power of citizens to hold accountable wielders of power to the highest legal and moral standards” (Carino 2002:1)
-International Press: felt anxious- reveals failure of procedural democracy
-Legal Scholars: feared the potential of opening the a series of people power acts that would further undermine institutional procedures and the fledging rule of law in the Philippines Constitutional Provisions and Democratic Deepening -1987 Constitution opened up opportunities to erode the power of political clans and leveled the political fields. The 1987 (New) Constitution: 1. Sets term limits
2.instituting a party list system that allocates 20% of 250 Lower House seats to new and smaller parties whose representatives would enjoy equal status with elected legislators, to be chosen on the basis of proportional representation
3) Promised to deepen democratization by decentralizing political power Three Constraints (Eaton 2003) a) (negative) affected the delivery of services that were once centralized (health) and made it vulnerable to the priorities of local officials
b) (negative) reinforced bossism and the overwhelming dominance of traditional politicians in areas where civil society is weak
c) (positive) led to remarkable developments in localities governed by forward-looking and willful political leaders. 3. Promised to deepen democratization by decentralizing political power V.Poverty and the Limits of Democratic Consolidation •A democratic political culture shape the coexistence of a number of diverse ethnic, class and religious communities that might disagree their answers to the most basic questions of human life.
•It supports the exercise of civic virtues
•The development of strong middle classes as harbingers is one of the factors that mediate the observed relationship between economic growth and democracy in the literature.
Przeworski, Alvarez, Cheibub and Limongi
-Avoidance of extreme class polarization= allow for the growth of the middle classes and foster civic cultures that nurture democracy -Objectives:
1.Provide a background of the political dev’t in the country
2.Impact of poverty in the consolidation of democracy -4-day EDSA uprising
-Assassination of former Senator Benigno Aquino -Involved outright replacement of an authoritarian leader who is oriented towards the benefit of particularistic groups -The returns of traditional politicians (including Marcos family) highlight the weaknesses of the country’s political institutions.
-POLITICAL CLANS supersede parties as the main form of political organization
-Existences of movements (Muslim movement vs Communist movement) push violent alternatives for resolution instead of democratic norms and procedures.
-Assumes that a nation’s constituency has so internalized democratic procedures and norms in social, institutional, and psychological life. No significant groups will consider pursuing goals outside the rules of the democratic game
-Contending political forces comply with the uncertain outcomes of processes that are determined solely by the interplay of democratic institutions - CONSOLIDATED DEMOCRACY -Philippines process of deepening democracy- more liberal, accessible, accountable, and representative
-Schedler’s frame: completing democracy on state power and civilian control over the military -In fact, some of these activists found their way into the appointive Constitutional Commission that framed the 1987 Constitution.
-Article II, Section 3 of the Constitution directs the state to “encourage non-governmental, community-based or sectoral organizations that promote the welfare of the nation”
-People Power II- October 2000 a) Only parties or organizations that received more than 2%, 4% and 6% of the party list votes cast nationwide were eligible for one, two and three of the available 50 seats, respectively, with none of the parties receiving more than 3% of the seats regardless of the number of people who voted for them.
b) The top five traditional political parties… are no longer prevented from capturing additional seats through the party list system. Thus, in the 2001 and 2004 elections, traditional political parties had an additional mechanism for gaining seats in Congress
c) Party list law imposes more stringent requirements on representatives of smaller parties than on those of single congressional districts. 1. Poverty and Secessionist/Revolutionary Movements - democratic consolidation in Philippines is severely constrained by the extra-constitutional challenge of militant social movements
•Ability of secessionist and Marxist-inspired movements to be part of the broader process of democratic incorporation (Rivera 2002)
•Muslim separatists and Communists vs the government
•Muslim Filipinos in Mindanao have been kept poor and continue to feel poor
•Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao had a higher poverty incidence and lower per capital incomes than other regions 2. Poverty and Electoral Politics •Hutchcroft and Rocamora argued that the political institutions created by the American regime in the country are highly unusual in the annals of colonialism. Contrary to the tendency of colonial regimes not to create effective representative institutions and instead put major emphasis on the creation of powerful bureaucratic systems 2. Poverty and Electoral Politics a) US officials gave far more attention to the creation of representative institutions than to the creation of a modern bureaucratic apparatus
b) because US colonials not only held elections for elite political contestation but also established representative institutions with significant degrees of political authority, one finds the bizarre phenomenon of internally mobilized parties in a colonial state
c) because representative institutions emerged before the creation of strong bureaucratic institutions, the “depradation of patronage-seeking politicians” quite easily overwhelmed the Philippine bureaucracy 2. Poverty and Electoral Politics •Patronage seeking
•A change in the conduct of political campaigns accompanied the increase in voters.
•Joseph Estrada was the first Philippine president to ride on the votes of the poor.
•Fernando Poe Jr “the King of Philippine Movies” How does the poor vote? The poor rank education, experience, platform and track record as among the most important criteria for choosing candidates
They value idealistic notions of leadership qualities such as piety, helpfulness, sincerity and responsibility
Poor voters do not necessarily prefer celebrities
Media, the family, the church and political parties, in this order, are the most important sources of influence in the choice of candidates
Cash may be accepted from a candidate who distributes money but this does not necessarily ensure vote for the candidate Shaffer’s view regarding democracy, class relations and elections (Shaffer 2001) 1. The poor are not shown kindness or respect and that the rich do not listen to the poor
2. The law in the country is for those who have money
3. The experience of not being listened to leads to feelings of insult and indignity
4. The poor feel that Estrada is one of them
5. In terms of electoral politics, the moral calculus of the respondents is to choose candidates whom they perceive to be caring, kind and helpful and who respect their
6. Vote selling by the poor is more complex than a simple exchange of money or goods. The poor who accept money have mixed set of motives for doing so. - The Philippines transitioned to democracy without sustained economic growth and significant transformation of its social structure
- The expansion of the middle classes has been exceedingly slow
- Employed persons in occupational categories, roughly middle class, increased by only 5.3% - The Philippines has the highest proportion of poor and undernourished people.
- Reduction of poverty incidence from 1961 to 1995 in the country was not remarkable at all in contrast to sleep decline in the proportion of poor people in neighboring Southeast Asian nations These remind the middle and upper classes that the chasm between their worldviews and those of the poor, which can only be bridged by enabling the latter to share the fruits of development, posess potential threats to the stability of the abstract democracy the upper and middle classes hope to substantiate