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Silk Road, Sahara Desert, and Indian Ocean Maritime
Transcript of Silk Road, Sahara Desert, and Indian Ocean Maritime
around 1500 B.C.E Sahara Desert Indian Ocean
Maritime Expanded greatly around
100 B.C.E 2. Where? Mediterranean, China, Mesopotamia, Iran, Central Asia, and by extension, South East Asia. 3. Who? Mediterranean- Expand influence, and get silk, spices, jewels, and luxury items.
India- Acted as middlemen in the trade after its expansion
China- To get Western Horses and form relations with Central Asia
Persia- Got spices, and silk in exchange for horses.
South East Asia- traded spices and foodstuffs, for items that couldn't be found without the trade. 5. The Pork Issue Religious groups all across the world developed practices involving the consumption and raising of Domesticated pigs. Many historians debate whether this happened as a result of trade, or if it sprouted across the world separately. 6. Buddhism Christianity Daoism Impacts 1.Where? 2. History? 3. Who and Why? 4. What? 6.Impact 5. Periplus of the Erythruen Sea 1. Trade Routes Changed Languages allowed for more communication
Religions influenced other religions and governments
Military technology spread, and warfare became more brutal.
Items only found in one place were now being made/grown all across the world
Governments took on some similar characteristics.
Opposing cultures were made
aware of each other 4. Imported: timber, horses, sheep, and cattle Exported: Silk, lacquer, paper, and porcelain . Imported: Gold, silk, jewels, gun powder, slaves, and luxury items Exported: Wine, oil jewelry and art Imported: Silk, rice, and horses
Exported: Spices, peppers, cosmetics, gems, and pearls Imported: Spices, silk, and porcelain
Exported: Horses, and grain. Imported: Horses, silk, and timber.
Exported: Rice, fruits, spices, and cattle. The Silk road spread Buddhism through the world.
From India to central and eastern Asia and parts of Persia.
Became the dominant religion of Silk road from 200 BCE to 700 CE
After spreading to China, Zen Buddhism developed.
By end of fourth century, most of northwestern China was Buddhism. The Silk road became a powerful tool for the spread of Christianity.
Christianity spread through the Middle East, North Africa, and Europe.
Nestorianism spread developed. Emphasized the Human Nature of Jesus. Developed in the Zhou Period by Zhang Jue and Zhang Daoling.
Main purpose was the search for immortality.
Began as organized religion in 2nd century CE
Zhang Joe was crushed, but Zhang Daoling lived on.
Many Chinese rulers tried using Daoism
Buddhism and Daoism competed in China for long time.
Buddhism eventually was more powerful
Silk Road caused conflict between Buddhism and Daoism Zoroastrianism Zoroastrianism was founded in ancient Persia
Struggle between good and evil, light and dark
Influenced many religions including Christianity
Persian rulers were most likely Zoroastrians for a time
Individuals are punished or rewarded for their deeds in the afterlife.
Similar ideals lead to influence of many religions when spread along the Silk Road. Military improvements Chariot warfare originated in Central Asia and spread East and West.
The stirrup came from the Kushan people and also spread through the known world with the saddle.
Mounted bowmen spread along the Silk road to be used in most of the powerful empires.
Because of stirrups, a long lance was used in warfare. This idea spread along the Silk road. Used the Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea, and the South China Sea Trade began when the early Indus Valley Civilizations began trading with Mesopotamia through the Arabian Sea By the time of Augustus, over 120 ships were setting sail every year from Myros Hormose to India. These ancient of sailors used the seasonal monsoon winds to cross the massive oceans. Eventually South East Asia and Arabia and the Roman Empire found themselves using this quick method of travel to trade important items The maritime remained largely separate from the political struggles of the lands which they
came from. India - Acted as a point from which others bought and sold items.
South East Asia - Main method by which these peoples traded. Got horses and cultural products of far countries.
Africa - Gave up ivory, slaves, exotic animals and gold
Arabia - Large chunk of traders who wanted ivory spices, silk and gold.
Mediterranean - Wanted luxury items, like gold, slaves, silk, ivory,
jewels and pearls. Ports: Muziris, Vyadhapura, Sri Lanka, Ubar, Berenike, Madagascar, Barygaza, Arikamedu, Kaveripattinam, Alexandria, Calcut, Kilwa, Sofala, Spice Islands, Mombasa, Mafia Islands, Rhapta, Malindi, and other
ports South East Asia - Exported spices, tortoise shell, wet rice, and exotic plants.
India - Exported Spices, peppers, ivory, and manufactured goods
China - Exports silk, porcelain, and manufactured goods.
Arabia - Exports horses, aromatic woods, and pearls.
Africa - Exported slaves, ivory wood, spices, and exotic animals
Mediterranean - exported arts,
and textiles. Was a sailing itinerary by an unknown Greco-Egyptian merchant.
Described much of the ports and traded goods of the Indian Ocean Maritime.
Provided one of the best sources of information of the extent of trade between the many civilizations in contact with the Indian Ocean and surrounding bodies of water.
Also showed the diversity and economic forces shaping this trading system. The vast expanse of trade in the area allowed for extremely culturally diverse groups to mingle.
Because of this, many families became both bilingual and bicultural.
Because of the lack of Islands, trade was not to the same extent as the Mediterranean, but goods did find their way across vast distances.
Civilization developed much quicker in areas that would otherwise have remained uncivilized(Africa, Madagascar, parts of Malaysia, and many islands of the Indian Ocean). Egypt, Tibesti, Tassili, Timbuktu, Taghaza Awdaghost, Ghana, Guinea, Darfur, Meroe, Nubia, 2. Who used it. Southern Traders concentrated on supplying salt from the Southern Sahara, while the Sub-Saharan Africans provided the forest products.
The Sahel acted as middlemen of this trade. Roman Colonists and Egyptians also tried to use this system of trade, but were largely unsuccessful.
The Indian Ocean Maritime made contact with the South Eastern coast of Africa, but remained separate from most of the interior. 3. Trade Southern Sahara produced both salt and gold sought after by most of the world.
South Eastern Africa provided ivory, exotic animals, slaves, fruit, exotic plants, and timber.
Sub-Saharan traders provided kola nuts, edible palm oil, and other forest products
Cattle was also a major product of some of the Saharan desert populations 4. Geography Vast desert that acts as an insurmountable barrier between civilizations Sub-Saharan savanna and forests that provide much of the food source for the neighbors to the north Rich coastal Areas that provided a basis for trade with India, Arabia, and Asia. 5. The Bantu The Bantu people are the group of cultures that compose a majority of the people of African descent.
More than three hundred languages south of the equator belong to the Bantu family. This group radiated both north and south of the Sahara desert as it was sapped of its moisture leaving what is left today.
They also were guessed to have had a massive migration south, east, and west between 500 BCE and 1000 CE, mixing into other African cultures creating the Pan-African traditions and cultures. The End