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Can the Earth Survive Without Fungi?

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Courtney Brown

on 27 July 2015

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Transcript of Can the Earth Survive Without Fungi?

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli
Could the World Survive Without Fungi?
What is Antagonistic Fungi?
Antagonistic fungi = association between two organisms in which one thrives in the expense of another.


Fungi Symbiotic Relationship
Cometabolism
Coexistent Evolution and Dependence
If fungi wasn’t present in any plant ecosystem or the world, terrestrial plant life would not be capable of sustaining life as abundantly as we observe today.
Mutualism; the relationship of benefit for both fungi and plants in symbiotic coexistence.
Coexistent Evolutionary History
Plants are primary producers of all life from free energy.
First terrestrial plants 400 million years ago in fossil records.
Aglaophyton and Mucoromycotina.
90% of plants have a mycorhizzae relationship with fungi, and nearly all AG crops for human use.
Coexistence first observed in 1885 by Franciszek Kamieński, Polish Botanist
The Mutalistic Relationship
Rhizosphere.
Exchange of the nutrients and carbohydrates.
Mycorrhiza converts nutrients.
Plant produces carbohydrates.
Coexistent relationship, no fungi= no plants.
Structure and Function
So Could Plants Survive Without Fungi?
Could, but not as successfully!!
Health of rhizosphere dependent on fungi coexistence.
Research of mycorrhiza free rhizosphere compared to inoculated rhizosphere in controlled experiments.
No nutrient uptake results in no growth, therefore no plants, resulting in no primary producers!
Yeast
Yeast Continued
There are currently 1,500 species of yeasts currently described.
Kingdom: Fungi
Microbial communities in floral nectar, affect nectar chemistry and pollinator behavior, which, in turn, has affects on plant reproductive success.
Microbial density is correlated with drastic changes in several nectar characteristics.
References:
Bidartondo, Martin. Read, David. “The Dawn of Symbiosis between Plants and Fungi.” Biology Letters. Royal Society of Publishing. August 2011.

Trappe, J. M. "Phylogenetic and ecologic aspects of mycotrophy in the angiosperms from an evolutionary standpoint". Ecophysiology of VA Mycorrhizal Plants. Florida: CRC Press, 1987.

Heijden, Marcel. Klironomos, John. Ursic, Margot. Moutoglis, Peter. Mycorrhizal fungal diversity
determines plant biodiversity, ecosystem variability and productivity. Nature, September 1998.

Herrera, Carlos, Maria Pozo, and Monica Medrano. "Yeasts in nectar of an early-blooming herb: sought by bumble bees, detrimental to plant fecundity." Ecological Society of America. (2013): 273-279. Web.
19 Nov. 2013.

Herrera, Carlos, Garcia Isabel, and Perez Ricardo. "Invisible Floral Larcenies: Microbial Communities Degrade Floral Nectar of Bumble Bee-Pollinated Plants." Ecological Society of America . (2008): 2369-2373. Web. 19 Nov. 2013.

Gerdemann, JW. Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhiza and Plant Growth
Annual Review of Phytopathology. Vol. 6: 397-418, September 1968.

Khan, AG. Kuek, C. Chaudhry, TM. Khoo, CS. Hayes, WG. Role of plants, mycorrhizae and phytochelators in heavy metal contaminated land remediation. University of Western Sydney. July 2000.

Mille-Lindblom, C., and L.J Tranvik. "Antagonism between Bacteria and Fungi on Decomposing Aquatic Plant Litter." Microbial Ecology, 28 Jan. 2003. Web.

Wakman, Selman A., Elizabeth S. Horning, and Ernest L. Spencer. "Two Antagonistic Fungi Aspergillus Fumigites and Aspergillus Clavatus and Their Antibiotic Substances." New Jersey Agricultural Experimental Station, 14 Aug. 1942. Web

Fungi buffer rhizosphere.
Regulation of salt build up.
Regulation of metabolism
Pathogen Defense
Communication
Endomycorrhizae=Angiosperms.
Ectomycorrhizae-Gymnosperms.
Ericoidmycorrhizae=Calcifuges
Full transcript