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Can the Earth Survive Without Fungi?
Transcript of Can the Earth Survive Without Fungi?
Could the World Survive Without Fungi?
What is Antagonistic Fungi?
Antagonistic fungi = association between two organisms in which one thrives in the expense of another.
Fungi Symbiotic Relationship
Coexistent Evolution and Dependence
If fungi wasn’t present in any plant ecosystem or the world, terrestrial plant life would not be capable of sustaining life as abundantly as we observe today.
Mutualism; the relationship of benefit for both fungi and plants in symbiotic coexistence.
Coexistent Evolutionary History
Plants are primary producers of all life from free energy.
First terrestrial plants 400 million years ago in fossil records.
Aglaophyton and Mucoromycotina.
90% of plants have a mycorhizzae relationship with fungi, and nearly all AG crops for human use.
Coexistence first observed in 1885 by Franciszek Kamieński, Polish Botanist
The Mutalistic Relationship
Exchange of the nutrients and carbohydrates.
Mycorrhiza converts nutrients.
Plant produces carbohydrates.
Coexistent relationship, no fungi= no plants.
Structure and Function
So Could Plants Survive Without Fungi?
Could, but not as successfully!!
Health of rhizosphere dependent on fungi coexistence.
Research of mycorrhiza free rhizosphere compared to inoculated rhizosphere in controlled experiments.
No nutrient uptake results in no growth, therefore no plants, resulting in no primary producers!
There are currently 1,500 species of yeasts currently described.
Microbial communities in floral nectar, affect nectar chemistry and pollinator behavior, which, in turn, has affects on plant reproductive success.
Microbial density is correlated with drastic changes in several nectar characteristics.
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Heijden, Marcel. Klironomos, John. Ursic, Margot. Moutoglis, Peter. Mycorrhizal fungal diversity
determines plant biodiversity, ecosystem variability and productivity. Nature, September 1998.
Herrera, Carlos, Maria Pozo, and Monica Medrano. "Yeasts in nectar of an early-blooming herb: sought by bumble bees, detrimental to plant fecundity." Ecological Society of America. (2013): 273-279. Web.
19 Nov. 2013.
Herrera, Carlos, Garcia Isabel, and Perez Ricardo. "Invisible Floral Larcenies: Microbial Communities Degrade Floral Nectar of Bumble Bee-Pollinated Plants." Ecological Society of America . (2008): 2369-2373. Web. 19 Nov. 2013.
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Wakman, Selman A., Elizabeth S. Horning, and Ernest L. Spencer. "Two Antagonistic Fungi Aspergillus Fumigites and Aspergillus Clavatus and Their Antibiotic Substances." New Jersey Agricultural Experimental Station, 14 Aug. 1942. Web
Fungi buffer rhizosphere.
Regulation of salt build up.
Regulation of metabolism