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Seligman, M. E. P., & Maier, S. F. (1967).

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Jackie Mai

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Transcript of Seligman, M. E. P., & Maier, S. F. (1967).

Failure to escape traumatic shock
Seligman, M. E. P., & Maier, S. F. (1967).
Fontaine, Tiffany, Jackie & Jordan
Summary of original study
Review of the studies since the original.
DISCUSSION
to investigate the relationship between the test anxiety and learned helplessness levels of students who prepared for the Turkish High School Placement Test (HSPT) and University Entrance Examiniation (UEE)
708 participants (358 male, 350 female) - aged 12-18 years old
HSPT - 12-14 years / UEE - 16 -19 years
Overview of the study
What was measured?
Learned Helplessness Scale For Children - measured internal, general and unchangable factors that were associated with learned helplessness
The Test Anxiety Scale - evaluating psychometric properties; 50 question survey with general anxiety, negative evaluation and insufficient preparation
responses were true or false
Results
Results of the study from table 3 in relation to gender show that on average females had higher anxiety levels than males.
Results from table 4 - indicate students who prepared for the HSPT were more stressed than students who were preparing for UEE student
results show that were is no significant relationship between test anxiety and learned helplessness.
HSPT students have difficulties coping with negative events, this may be due to adolescents not completing their mental and psychosocial development a
Overview of the study
learned helplessness may be the main cause of violent exposure and mental disorders in women
evaluated the contribution of learned helplessness in Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), exposure to violence and major depression
102 women were obtained for the study, residents from 11 Irasel's shelters for battered women
aged from 19-50 years
What was measured?
Structural clinical review for DSM-IV - to determine presence of life time and current abuse
The modified PTSD Scale-Self report recorded the frequency and severity of case
Learned Helplessness Questionnaire (LHQ) consisted of 20 questions, measuring the degree of control over problems
Trauma History Questionnaire evaluated the physical violence, sexual abuse threats throughout a life time
Evaluated whether learned helplessness is associated with PTSD
Results in relation to Heligman's learned helplessness
as shown in Table 1 - most frequent types of abuse were cursing
Learned helplessness in these women were shown to be more common in both Non-PTSD and PTSD (M=42.58 & 50.06)
PTSD symptoms and depression and learned helplessness were highly correlated, mainly caused by sexual violence, male-dominated backgrounds and child abuse
The relationship between test anxiety and learned helplessness
Figan, Acka., (2011). Social Behaviour and Personality, Vol 39(1), pp. 101-112.
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Depression in Battered Women: The Mediating Role in Learned Helplessness
Bargai, N., Ben-Shakhar, G., & Shalev, Y. A. (2007). Journal Family of Violence, Vol 22(5) , pp. 267-275
Seligman's original study focused on the reaction times of dogs when receiving an electric shock.
there was no relationship between test anxiety and learned helplessness.
As shown in Seligman's study, overtime people as well as animals learn helplessness in times of stress and fear.
Seligman's study of learned helplessness explores why we become depressed, how it contributes to our lack of control, how permanent and temporary they may be
As shown in this study of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder in relation to learned helplessness, human learn helplessness through factors such as abuse and stress instead of trying to terminate it.
Akca, Figen. (2011). The relationship between test anxiety and learned helplessness. Social Behaviour and Personality, Vol 39(1), pp. 101-112.
Bargai, N., Ben-Shakhar, G., & Shalev, Y. A. (2007). Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Depression in Battered Women: The Mediating Role of Learned Helplessness. Journal of Family Violence, Vol 22(5), pp. 267-275.
Hock, R. Roger., (2014). Forty Studies That Changed Psychology; Explorations into the History of Psychological Research. England, Pearson.
Seligman, E. P. M., Maier, F. S. (1967). Failure to Escape Traumatic Shock. Journal of Experimental Psychology, Vol 74(1), pp. 1-9.
References
Experiment 1
Experiment 2
Seligman believed when a person attempts to control certain life events and fails repeatedly, the person may see their lack of control and begin to feel helpless and depressed
He developed his theory of learned helplessness through using dogs as the subject
Therefore proposing to test the effect of controllable vs. uncontrollable shock on the ability to learn how to avoid shock.


Investigates if prior experience with escapable shock will lessen the effects of inescapable shock on later escape/avoidance behavior
Obtained 24 mongrel dogs (15-19 inches high at the shoulder, weighing 25-29 pounds)
Divided into 3 groups of 8: Group 1 - escape group, Group 2 - no escape group, Group 3 - no harness control group
Two apparatus used in experiment:
-Pavlovian harness with panels: for escapable/inescapable shock sessions
-Two way shuttle box: for escape/avoidance training
Investigates effects of escapable vs. inescapable shock on later escape/avoidance responding
Method:
Results and implications:
Method:
Results and implications:
escape group learned to panel press to terminate shock in the harness
no-escape group generally ceased panel pressing altogether after 30 trials
escape group learned while in harness that their behavior was connected with termination of shock giving them motivation to escape
no escape group learnt behavior was independent of shock termination while in harness, therefore no motivation to escape
Under stress and pressure students either try to attempt to fix it or they give up
Relates to anyone who deals with everyday people in their profession as they would need to be understanding of how each individual is
The relationship between test anxiety and learned helplessness
helps psychologists understand and treat women who experiences traumatic events, they become mentally illnesses such as; depression, anxiety or PSTD
gives us a clearer perception to help overcome illnesses
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Depression in Battered Women: The Mediating Role in Learned Helplessness
1. Is learned helplessness the major contributor to most depression/anxiety or stress disorder cases?

2. Where do you think it derives from?

3. On a personal level what do you think can be effected from Traumatic events, what would you look out for in a person who suffers from it and how do you think it would impact their life?

4. How do we counteract learned helplessness? How do we overcome it?
Escape group
- received escape training in harness, panel pressing terminated shock
- 24 hrs later given 10 trials in shuttle box
No-Escape Group ("Yoked" control group)
- each dog paired with dog in escape group
- received shocks in harness, was not able to terminate shock
- 24 hrs later given 10 trials in shuttle box
- 7 days later, dogs which showed interference effect received 10 more trials in shuttle box
No-Harness control group (normal control group)
- only received 10 trials in shuttle box
Preescape group
-
Day 1:
10 escape/avoidance trials in shuttle box
-
Day 2:
inescapable shock session in harness (64 5-sec shocks, interval 90 sec)
-
Day 3:
30 more escape/avoidance trials in shuttle box
No Pregroup
-
Day 1:
inescapable shock session in harness
-
Day 2:
40 escape/avoidance trials in shuttle box
No Inescapable group
- treated same as Preescape group but no shock in harness
-
Day 1:
10 escape/avoidance trials in shuttle box
-
Day 2:
strapped in harness for 90 mins, no shock
-
Day 3:
30 escape/avoidance trials in shuttle box
"No Pregroup" showed significant interference with escape/avoidance responding on day 3 whereas other two groups did not
"No Pregroup" showed more failures to escape across 40 trials than the other two groups
"Pre Escape group made more panel presses than No Pregroup during inescapable shock in harness
Preescape group continued to press panel during inescapable shock in harness and also managed to learn to escape/avoid shock in shuttle box
Indicates that once the dogs had learned that their actions were capable of affecting the outcome, later experience with failure was not enough to diminish their motivation to change their fate
Experiment 1
Development of depression in humans involves similar process to learned helplessness in animals
Both helpless dogs and depressed humans learn specific past experiences
Learned helplessness in demonstration of discipline seeking behaviour

Experiment 2

Learned helplessness more evident to people
Encourages further research to be inspired mans can lead to depression and serious consequences beyond depression

HSPT student learned helpless levels were higher than UEE students
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