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Positive Psychology

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J K

on 27 July 2014

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Transcript of Positive Psychology

Thank You
portrays both ego-based and empathy motivated altruism. Volunteers, many of whom do not directly know the family in need, donate their time and effort to build them a new home.
Emotional Experiences
in Reality TV
TRAITS
The portrayal of positive psychology and its associated traits have a relevant place in the study of TV’s affect on its audience. Loathed by critics and generally thought to be destructive and harmful, reality TV requires a levelheaded analysis to replace the moral panic-like hysteria it has thus far provoked.
Dave Caplan
Fielding Graduate University
Snyder, Lopez, and Pedrotti state that a fundamental tenet of positive psychology is the mandate to explore the positive as well as the negative for a balanced view (2011, ch. 1). Reality TV deserves no less.
Introduction
MSC-555 Positive Psychology and Prosocial Media
Cynthia Hagan
Summer 2013
By which Reality TV Affects the Audience
in Reality TV
By Definition:
By Definition:
According to Nabi, Biely, Morgan, and Sitt (2003) reality TV is about real people as they live out events, as these events occur. Reality shows are characterized by several elements...
Elements that Characterize
Reality TV
1) People portraying themselves
2) Filmed at least in part in their living or working environment rather than on a set
3) Without a script
4) With events placed in a narrative context
5) For the primary purpose of viewer entertainment.
Reality TV now commands the biggest share of U.S. viewership. In 2000, only four reality shows were on the schedule, but by the 2010 season 320 reality shows were featured (ScreenRant, 2013).
Since the 2002 season, reality TV has consistently captured the largest percentage of top 10 audiences, reaching 77% of the top 10 viewing audience in 2007 (Nielson Newswire, 2012).
Movie Model
Using the
In Positive Psychology at the Movies, Niemiec and Wedding (2008) set forth criteria to evaluate feature films for the strengths and values they portray. We can
borrow this for reality TV.
Niemiec (2007) outlines four criteria that determine a “positive psychology film”:
Such a film would feature a balanced portrayal of a character displaying at least one of the 24 strengths categorized by Peterson and Seligman (2004).
The depiction of obstacles and/or struggle or conflict the character faces in reaching a maximizing of strength.
The film would display a character portrayal that illustrates how to overcome obstacles and/or build and maintain that strength.
A tone or mood in the film that is inspiring or uplifting.

Movie Model
Positive
Introduction
Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) describes the psychosocial mechanisms through which symbolic communication influences human thought, affect, and action (Nabi & Clark, 2008). Through symbolic modeling, viewers vicariously experience the emotions and behaviors of reality TV cast members and learn from them, almost as if they had themselves encountered the experience (Bandura, 2001).
Gerbner’s Cultivation Theory suggests that viewers integrate distorted representations they see on TV into their perceptions of the real world through viewing repetition (Shrum, Wyger, and O’Guinn, 1998).
Social Comparison Theory states that people are innately drawn to compare themselves to others for purposes of self-evaluation (Wheeler, Suls, & Martin, 2001.) Upward or downward social comparison describes the viewer discerning that he or she is more than, or less than, the observed target. Upward comparison can ego deflating or provide motivation. Downward comparison is generally sought to boost self-esteem (Collins, 1996).
POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY TRAITS
in Reality TV
Examples of
Emotional Experiences
Emotional Intelligence (EI), emotion-focused coping, and emotional storytelling help to dictate whether one adopts an emotional avoidance or a healthier emotional approach orientation.
illustrates an unfortunately common occurrence in reality TV – a lack of EI.
Kitchen Nightmares
After restaurateur Gordon Ramsey criticizes a Mediterranean restaurant, the employees verbally attack each other. Rather than understanding their emotions, then managing them, they lash out in anger, unable to acknowledge that the real emotion is one of hurt and insult.
provides a poignant example of emotional storytelling.
The Biggest Loser
Dolvett Quince, a trainer, comes to the room of a contestant to encourage him to continue striving for his goals. Quince reveals his own struggles as a physically abused foster child in an honest and cathartic retelling of traumatic events from his childhood.
Psychology
TRAITS
features an episode with Marques, a dedicated Pretzel Factory employee whose punctuality, drive, and attitude are conscious decisions to improve his financial standing.
Undercover Boss
His self-efficacy pays off as the CEO recognizes Marques’ hard work and rewards him with ownership of his own store.
Positive Cognitive States
Reality TV is rife with examples of Self-Efficacy, Hope, and Optimism, as well as antithetical attitudes. These positive psychology traits determine how one looks toward the future.
Bandura describes self-efficacy as “‘peoples’ beliefs in their capabilities to produce desired effects by their own actions” (ch. 8, p. 168).
Positive Cognitive States
Undercover Boss
also airs an episode which highlights optimism. Angel, a smiling, hard-working employee eventually admits to her CEO that she lives with her kids in a homeless shelter. Despite her circumstance, she fully expects that things will improve for her and her family.
Mob Wives
follows seven Staten Island women whose husbands and fathers are/were connected to organized crime. The show generally shows people of low EI, and poor emotion-focused coping skills.
Renee displays a lack hope when she confesses at length about her habit of taking pills to numb herself, because she “doesn’t want to feel anything.”
...not qualities one readily associates with reality TV. However, both pro and con examples abound.
Prosocial Behavior
altruism,
gratitude,
& forgiveness
portrays both ego-based and empathy motivated altruism. Volunteers, many of whom do not directly know the family in need, donate their time and effort to build them a new home.
Extreme Home Makeover
provides a show of gratitude Luke Adams, a deaf 25-year-old, emotionally shows gratitude to his mother Margie for having learned sign language to communicate with him.
The Amazing Race
Examples of Diverse Cultures
Snyder et al., describe how cultural awareness and diversity are critical to understand and accomplish the adoption of positive psychology traits.
Bell-Johnson (2008) concludes that reality shows promote a politics of difference, emphasizing conflict and division by positioning race as a point of contention among the cast members.
Examples of Diverse Cultures
race
reinforces this idea. It featured contestant Arryn mocking African American contestant Candice in a racially insulting way.
Big Brother 15
Recommendations
Recommendations
Media literacy programs are a
promising
way to prepare viewers for negative
reality TV messages.
Five Things Everyone Should Know About Media
1) All media messages are constructions;
2) Each person interprets messages differently;
3) Media have commercial interests;
4) Media have values;
5) Each medium has its own language and style
(Cable In The Classroom, 2013).

Cable in the Classroom
suggests the following....
Perhaps through
media literacy education,
both negative messages and “positive psychology reality TV shows” can spawn a productive discussion
media literacy education,
media literacy education,
media literacy education,
Thank You
Positive
Psychology
The portrayal of positive psychology and its associated traits have a relevant place in the study of TV’s affect on its audience. Loathed by critics and generally thought to be destructive and harmful, reality TV requires a levelheaded analysis to replace the moral panic-like hysteria it has thus far provoked.
According to Nabi, Biely, Morgan, and Sitt (2003) reality TV is about real people as they live out events, as these events occur. Reality shows are characterized by several elements...
1) People portraying themselves
2) Filmed at least in part in their living or working environment rather than on a set
3) Without a script
4) With events placed in a narrative context
5) For the primary purpose of viewer entertainment.
Viewership
Reality TV now commands the biggest share of U.S. viewership. In 2000, only four reality shows were on the schedule, but by the 2010 season 320 reality shows were featured (ScreenRant, 2013).
Viewership
Such a film would feature a balanced portrayal of a character displaying at least one of the 24 strengths categorized by Peterson and Seligman (2004).
The depiction of obstacles and/or struggle or conflict the character faces in reaching a maximizing of strength.
The film would display a character portrayal that illustrates how to overcome obstacles and/or build and maintain that strength.
A tone or mood in the film that is inspiring or uplifting.

Mechanisms
Mechanisms
By which Reality TV Affects the Audience
Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) describes the psychosocial mechanisms through which symbolic communication influences human thought, affect, and action (Nabi & Clark, 2008). Through symbolic modeling, viewers vicariously experience the emotions and behaviors of reality TV cast members and learn from them, almost as if they had themselves encountered the experience (Bandura, 2001).
Gerbner’s Cultivation Theory suggests that viewers integrate distorted representations they see on TV into their perceptions of the real world through viewing repetition (Shrum, Wyger, and O’Guinn, 1998).
And Their Antithesis
After restaurateur Gordon Ramsey criticizes a Mediterranean restaurant, the employees verbally attack each other. Rather than understanding their emotions, then managing them, they lash out in anger, unable to acknowledge that the real emotion is one of hurt and insult.
Dolvett Quince, a trainer, comes to the room of a contestant to encourage him to continue striving for his goals. Quince reveals his own struggles as a physically abused foster child in an honest and cathartic retelling of traumatic events from his childhood.
Bandura describes self-efficacy as “‘peoples’ beliefs in their capabilities to produce desired effects by their own actions” (ch. 8, p. 168).
features an episode with Marques, a dedicated Pretzel Factory employee whose punctuality, drive, and attitude are conscious decisions to improve his financial standing.
Undercover Boss
also airs an episode which highlights optimism. Angel, a smiling, hard-working employee eventually admits to her CEO that she lives with her kids in a homeless shelter. Despite her circumstance, she fully expects that things will improve for her and her family.
follows seven Staten Island women whose husbands and fathers are/were connected to organized crime. The show generally shows people of low EI, and poor emotion-focused coping skills.
...not qualities one readily associates with reality TV. However, both pro and con examples abound.
provides a show of gratitude Luke Adams, a deaf 25-year-old, emotionally shows gratitude to his mother Margie for having learned sign language to communicate with him.
The Amazing Race
Bell-Johnson (2008) concludes that reality shows promote a politics of difference, emphasizing conflict and division by positioning race as a point of contention among the cast members.
reinforces this idea. It featured contestant Arryn mocking African American contestant Candice in a racially insulting way.
Full transcript