**DATA**

What is Data?

We live in an information society with data about data!

Presenting and analysing data gives it meaning.

Pictograms

Bar Charts

Title, axis, scale, key

Pie Charts

Averages

Pictograms

represent data using images. It is a fun and interesting way to show data. Pictograms always have a

key

to make sense of what the images mean.

A graphical display of data using rectangular bars to show how large each value is. The bars can be

horizontal

or

vertical

. Here is an example of test result data and a

single bar chart

.

These are important elements when representing data.

The

Title

tells us what the data represents.

Y axis

X axis

A special chart that uses

pie slices

to show relative sizes of data.

Imagine you just did a survey of your friends to find how they travel to school. In this chart the number of children has been included on each slice and there is a

key

to show what the slice colour represents.

Data is a collection of facts, such as values or measurements.

It can be numbers, words, measurements, observations or even just descriptions of things.

The

horizontal

X

axis

of this chart shows the specific grades being compared, and the

vertical

Y

axis

represents an actual value. The

scale

is on the Y axis and displays equal divisions for equal values.

The

key

explains what each colour on a chart relates to.

The average is the calculated central value of a set of numbers.

To find the

average: add up all the numbers, then divide by how many numbers there are

.

Example

: what is the average of 2, 7 and 9?

Add the numbers: 2 + 7 + 9 = 18

Divide by how many numbers (i.e. we added 3 numbers): 18 ÷ 3 = 6

So the average is 6!

Tally Sheets

Tallying

is a way of adding that uses groups of five. A tally sheet is a fast way to record results using lines instead of writing out words or figures. The data is collected in groups.

The example below is a tally to show the colour of cars that pass by to find the total frequencies at the end of a one-hour period.

References

British Broadcasting Corporation (2014) Handling Data. [Online]. Available at: www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/ks3/maths/handling_data/ (Accessed: 20 October 2014).

British Broadcasting Corporation (2014) Tally and Frequency Chart example, Images. [Online]. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/ks3/maths/handling_data/collecting_recording/revision/3/ (Accessed: 20 October 2014).

Hot Butter Studio (2014) Data Infographic Photo. [Online]. Available at: http://www.hotbutterstudio.com/alps/ (Accessed: 20 October 2014).

11 Plus for Parents (2014) Handling Data - Pie Charts. [Online]. Available at: http://www.11plusforparents.co.uk/Maths/handling%20data%204.html (Accessed: 20 October 2014).

11 Plus for Parents (2014) Handling Data - Pie Charts, Methods of Travelling to School, Image. [Online]. Available at: http://www.11plusforparents.co.uk/Maths/handling%20data%204.html (Accessed: 20 October 2014).

Math Is Fun (2014) Bar Graph example: Student Grades, Images. [Online]. Available at: http://www.mathsisfun.com/data/bar-graphs.html (Accessed: 20 October 2014).

Math Is Fun (2014) Pictograph example, Apples Sold, Images. [Online]. Available at: http://www.mathsisfun.com/data/pictographs.html (Accessed: 20 October 2014).

Math Is Fun (2014) Using and Handling Data. [Online]. Available at: www.mathsisfun.com/data/ (Accessed: 20 October 2014).

Solomun (2008) The Way Back. [Music]. Available at: (Accessed: 20 October 2014).