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Holmenkollen

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Tereza Votavová

on 20 June 2014

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Transcript of Holmenkollen

Norwegian ski-history
Holmenkollen
Holmenkollen
History of Holmenkollen
Husebybakken
Norway’s most visited tourist attraction and one of the world’s most famous sporting arenas.
Ski jumping competitions have been held at Holmenkollen every year from 1892.
The ski jump has been redeveloped on 18 previous occasions (last time for the World Championships in 1982)
The first skijumping competition : 31st January 1892 (12,000 spectators)
Longest jump : 21,5metres (Arne Ustvedt )
Winter Olympic games in 1952.
Current record (2010) : 139m Andreas Kofler (Austria)
Holmenkollen Day (in March every year) regarded as Norway’s « other » National Day!Ski Jump is world famous and represents an international symbol of ski jumping and ski sport generally.
In the home country of skiing the first ski jumping competitions took place from 1879 to 1891 on Husebybakken in the western part of Oslo.
Husebybakken to Holmenkollen
On January 31, 1892 around 5 km north of it a new ski jumping hill at Holmenkollen was inaugurated.
12,000 spectators
The first winner jumped on 21.5 m.
Since this year the traditional Holmenkollen competitions have been existing.
Holmenkollen : Expansions
National sports
National feeling
Bibliographie
1914, the first tower was erected
In 1927 after a competition the tower collapsed.
For the VI Olympic Winter Games in Oslo in 1952, permanent grandstands and a judge’s tower were built.
During the World Championships of 1966 and 1982 the facility was further extended.
Only small alterations have been made before the current major re-development for the 2011 World Championships.
- Fritjof Nansen (1861 – 1930)
- Polar researcher, skier, humanist and scientist.
- "Skiing is « The sport of sports » and the « most national of all Norwegian sports »."
- Ski : First one of the winter sports in Norway.
- Holmenkollen : ski festival (the most important attracts for the people).
- A national monument and one of the main tourist attractions of the country.
- Annual Day of the children
PEDERSEN, K., VIKEN,A.: “Nature and Identity – and Introduction”

MACCLANCY, J.: “Sport, Identity and Ethnicity”

GOKSØYR, M.: “Our Games –Our Virtues?”

http://www.holmenkollen.com/eng/About-Holmenkollen/Holmenkollen-history
http://www.telemarktips.com/WhatsTele.html
http://www.sondrenorheim.com/skisbindingsstyle.htm
http://www.telefilm.h2omaniaks.com/co-je-to-telemark/historie-telemarkoveho-lyzovani/
http://barevelstand.wordpress.com/2008/05/12/les-norvegiens-et-la-nature/
.......
Snowshoe
Transportation
Work
Millitary
At the beginning...
Skiing as a leisure time activity ...
...for everyone...
Sondre Norheim
1825 - 1897
Folk hero born in Morgedal
farmer, athlete, ski promoter...
1866 won first ski jumping competition

Inventions:
~ ski binding
~ shape of ski
~ Telemark turn
~ Christiania turn
~ combination ordinary skiing with jumping and slalom (“slalåm”)
Fridtjof Nansen
1861 - 1930
~ nobel price for peace
~ crossed Greenland by skies
~ popularization of skiing
Development of material
http://www.newslab.cz/exkurze-do-historie-lyzarskeho-vybaveni/
Development of skiing
Classic skiing
Ski jumping
...in every conditions...
Asia (8000 – 4000 BC)
Transportation, hunting
Ski Hotting (cca 4000 BC, 1,1 m long, 20 cm wide)
The Industrial Revolution in Telemark, Norway
1843 - 1st race in Tromsø
1877 -1st ski club in Kristiania (Oslo)
Do you have others examples of such a phenomenon? of "national sports"?
Telemark skiing
Sondre Norheim :
200km trip for the competition
Norheim and the other villagers shocked the city skiers, demonstrating skills that had never been seen before.
And telemark technique was beginning to be more popular and useful...
Free-heel skiing
Keeping the social contact at the small communities with long distances between villages
But...As recreational skiing became more commercialized, and with the growth of ski resorts and their usually groomed, firm snow runs...
...telemark technique failed around 1900s.
Alpine skiing
By the 50s and 60s, the telemark turn was a forgotten technique.
Hard snow and european alps required different ski technique.
Mathias Zdarsky
19/20.century - improved binding - attached heel
Telemark skiing was coming back again in 70's due to the group of skiers in and around Crested Butte, Colorado
Now telemark skiing coming back to the Europe
More and more people wants to go back to the nature...
Telemark again?
Biathlon
One of the world's first known ski clubs, the Trysil Rifle and Ski Club, was formed in Norway in 1861 to promote national defense at the local level.
origins in exercise for Norwegian soldiers - military
Military patrol
The first World Championship in biathlon -1958 in Austria

1960 the sport was finally included in the Olympic Games.

At Albertville in 1992 women were first allowed in Olympic biathlon.
Some Examples
-Canada with Ice-Hockey
-Afghanistan with Bouzkachi
-Spain, Argentina...with Football
- America with Baseball
-New-Zealand with Rugby XV
Sport and National Identity
- 1905 : Independence of Norway
- Skiing became central need to have activities for the identity
- F.Nansen (Crossing of Greenland in ski 1888)
- In Norway, when you learned to ski was to learn to be Norwegian
National identity, national feeling
= when somebody has the feeling to belong to a nation
Other example of national feeling
- National anthem
2011 - 246,5 m - Johan Remen Evensen (NOR)
http://www.novinky.cz/cestovani/225838-elegantni-ale-i-narocne-telemarkove-lyzovani-se-opet-vraci-v-plne-sile.html
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