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Chapter 5, Key Issue 2
Transcript of Chapter 5, Key Issue 2
Balto-Slavic used to be a single language
differences developed in 700 AD because of migration to different areas
All Slavic languages are very similar. A Czech could understand Slovak very well.
It is a huge part of cultural identity and that's why there are a lot of different languages
East Slavic and Baltic Groups
Russian is the primary language (80% of Russian people speak it)
Russian is also one of the six official UN languages
Russian increased primarily because of the Soviet Union
They forced people to learn Russian, including Eastern European countries
other languages were pushed to be used more in order to truly break up the influence of the Soviet Union
West Slavic and South Slavic Groups
most spoken West Slavic language is Polish, followed by Czech and Slovak.
Czech and Slovak are very similar
They both originate from the country of Czechoslovakia
The Czechoslovakian government pushed for both languages to be used equally, even going as far as making sports announcers switch languages between halve
in '93, the country split and they maintained unique languages and ethnic groups
most important South Slavic language is Serbo-Croatian and Bulgarian
Serbo-Croatian is split into Serbian and Croatian
It's called Serbo-Croatian because they speak the same language
they just use different alphabets
Croatians use the Roman Alphabet, while Serbians use Cyrillic.
Slovene is the official language of Slovenia.
Macedonian is the official language of Macadonia
Different languages have changed over the years because of different cultures and different influences
Indo Iranian Branch
over 100 individual languages, spoken by over 1 billion people
two language groups: Indic and Iranian
India has four main language families: Indo-European in the north, Dravidian in the south, Sino-Tibetan in the northeast, and Austro-Asiatic in the central and eastern highlands
There are 18 official languages in India
spoken in Iran and neighboring countries in southwestern Asia.
all written in the Arabic Alphabet
Germanic Branch of Indo-European
Germanic was spoken by the Germanic tribes that invaded England 1500 years ago.
English is located in the West Germanic
in the Germanic
of the Indo-European
It is part of the Indo-European language family
Indo- European is the world’s most extensively spoken language family by a wide margin. 3 billion speak it as their first language.
Indo- European Branches
Differences within branches aren’t as old as language families.
Some branches are in the same family
Indo- Iranian, Romance, Germanic, Balto- Slavic,
Albanian, Armenian, Greek, and Celtic
The four most important are:
Indo- Iranian, Romance, Germanic, and Balto- Slavic
Why is English Related to Other Languages?
Chapter 5, Key Issue 2
Why is English related to other languages?
What group may have been the first speakers of an Indo-European language?
What theory suggests that Indo-European languages diffused across Europe with the diffusion of agriculture?
Anatolian hearth theory
What are the four most frequently spoken branches of Indo-European?
Balto-Slavic, Indo-Iranian, Romance, Germanic
What is a language family?
A group of languages that share a common ancestor before recorded history
Language Family- collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existe long before recorded history.
Language Branch- within a language family. It is a collection of languages related to ancesetor several thousand years ago
English is part of which language group?
What language group is English a part of?
What language branch is English a part of?
What language family is English a part of?
What is the most widely spoken Indo-European language?
Language Group- collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past
What is the most important language of Pakistan?
East Slavic/ Blavic
Evolved from Latin
The four most common are Spanish (Spain), Portuguese (Portugal), French (France), and Italian (Italy)
Spanish and French are UN official languages
Romanian is the main language of Romania and Moldova
Romansh and Catalán are two other Romance languages
and there is also Sardinian, which is a mixture of Italian, Spanish, and Arabic
Also, Ladin and Frulian are Romance languages that are Rhaeto-Romanic dialects
Additionally, Ladino is a mixture of Greek, Spanish, Turkish, and Hebrew, and is spoken by some Jews in Israel
The immense amount of Romance languages can make it hard to identify the number of languages in the world.
Origin and Diffusion of Romance Languages
They are all derived from Latin
in 200 AD at the height of the Roman Empire, it stretched from the Atlantic Ocean to the Black Sea and Encompassed all lands bordering the Mediterranean.
As the Roman Empire conquered more and more, it took away other languages and replaced them with Latin
the most common form of Latin used by the public was Vulgar Latin.
With the collapse of the Roman Empire, communications declined and distinct languages began to form based off of Latin
Romance Language Dialects
The creation of standard national languages happened fairly recently
The dialect of the Ile-de-France region became French
different dialects in the north and south of France
these dialects derive from how the word "yes" was said
basically, different pronunciation of the same word was used, creating two different dialects
other French dialects include Languedoc, Occitan, and Provençal.
The Castilian dialect grew during the Middle Ages and became Spanish.
Different dialects of Spanish include Aragón, Naverre, Léon, Asturias, and Santander.
Portuguese is also very similar to Spanish
Spanish and Portuguese are only spoken 10% within Europe. The other 90% is outside Europe, mainly in Central/South America
they were diffused into the Americas by explorers
The Spanish Royal Academy has created an official Spanish language for use around the world. They published their dictionary in 1992.
Portuguese countries have done similar things and standarized a language in 1994.
Some difficulties arise when two languages sound very similar
for instance, Moldovan is the official language of Moldova but is generally classified as a dialect of Romanian.
Also, Romance languages have been "creolized" which is when the colonizer's language is mixed with language of the indigenous people.
Many languages, and hard to identify specifics. The main languages are Spanish, Portuguese, French, and Italian.
What are all of the Romance languages?
Italian, Portuguese, Romanian, Spanish, French
Creole- a language that results from the mixing of the colonizer's language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated.
Dialect- regional variety of a language distinguished by vocab, spelling, and pronunciation.
Origin and Diffusion of Indo-European
Indo-European descended from a language called Proto-Indo-European
this cannot be fully proved, as it existed before writing or recorded history
Many Indo-Europeans have the same words, which is why linguists believe that Proto-Indo-European existed.
Linguists can use this similar words to determine where the first Proto-Indo-European speaking people lived
for instance, the words
are the same in many Indo-European languages, but not
This leads linguists to believe that they lived in a cold, harsh climate, but did not come into contact with water or the ocean
There are many different theories about how Proto-Indo-European spread
Marija Gimbuta's Kurgan Hearth theory- first P-I-E speakers were the Kurgans, who lived near present-day Russia and Kazakhstan. Evidence of the Kurgans dates to 4300 BC. They were nomadic herders, and spread throughout much of Europe and South Asia.
Renfrew's Anatolian Hearth Theory- first P-I-E speakers lived 2000 years before the Kurgans, and lived in eastern Anatolia (present day Turkey). Renfrew believes that they moved from Turkey to Greece to Italy, Sicily, Corsica, France, and Portugal, then to France and the British Isles. They also spread down towards the Baltic Sea and towards Ukraine. And they spread towards Iran and Pakistan , and down into South Asia.They mainly spread with the diffusion of agriculture.