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Relative Location: Southwestern Europe, on the Iberian Peninsula. It is the westernmost country of mainland Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west and south and by Spain to the north and east
Human Characteristics: Their many monasteries, castles, and many beautiful buildings
Physical Characteristics: Mountainous North of Tagus river, rolling hills and marshy areas in the South.
Humans adapt to the environment: Portugal is a developed country with a very high Human Development Index, the world's 27th highest quality of life as of 2010, and the 25th in Bloomberg's Global Innovation Index. It is one of the world's most globalized and peaceful nations: a member of the European Union and the United Nations, and a founding member of the Latin Union, the Organization of Ibero-American States, OECD, NATO, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, the eurozone and the Schengen Agreement.
Humans modify the environment:The earliest modern humans inhabiting Portugal are believed to have been Paleolithic peoples that may have arrived in the Iberian Peninsula as early as 35,000 to 40,000 years ago. Since then Portugal has became a developed country with a very high Human Development Index, the world's 19th-highest quality-of-life as of 2005, and the 25th in Bloomberg's Global Innovation Index.
Humans depend on the environment: Portugal is on the border of the Atlantic Ocean making food easier to obtain, also the climate is fairly nice.
Movement made by people: They brought people, animals, food, and a new meaning to life as well as maintained a certain degree of cultural and ethnic-specific characteristics ratio with the Basques, since ancient times.
Movement made by goods: Founding member both of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the European Free Trade Association (EFTA), one of the newest members (along with Spain) of the European Community (EC).
Movement made by ideas: textiles and footwear; wood pulp, paper, and cork; metals and metalworking; oil refining; chemicals; fish canning; rubber and plastic products; ceramics; electronics and communications equipment; rail transportation equipment; aerospace equipment; ship construction and refurbishment; wine; tourism
Formal Region: mountainous north of the Tagus River, rolling plains in south
Functional Regions: T.A.P. stands for the Portuguese words Transportes Aéreos Portugueses
Vernacular Region: Middle East Romania Absolute Location: 46 degrees 00' N and 25 degrees 00'
Relative Location: situated near Bran and in the immediate vicinity of Braov, is a national monument and landmark in Romania. The fortress is situated on the border between Transylvania and Wallachia, on DN73. Commonly known as "Dracula's Castle" (although it is one among several locations linked to the Dracula legend, including Poenari Castle and Hunyad Castle), it is marketed as the home of the titular character in Bram Stoker's Dracula
Human Characteristics: Pele Castle (Sinaia), built between 1873–1914, is considered one of the most beautiful castles in Romania and Eastern Europe. Unique architecture and gold gilded rooms attract thousands of visitors daily.
Physical Characteristics: Romania's terrain is distributed roughly equally between mountainous, hilly and lowland territories. The Carpathian Mountains dominate the centre of Romania, with 14 mountain ranges reaching above 2,000 m or 6,600 ft, and the highest point at Moldoveanu Peak (2,544 m or 8,346 ft).
Humans Depend on the Environment: Most of the country's natural gas deposits are found in the Transylvanian Plateau. The Southern Carpathians and the Banat hold most of the hard coal reserves, while brown coal is distributed more widely across the country, with major deposits in Bacau and Cluj judete, the southeastern Carpathian foothills, and the Danube Plain.
Humans Modify the Environment: Over the centuries, the harvesting of trees for lumber and fuel and the relentless encroachment of agriculture greatly diminished the forestlands that originally had covered all but the southeastern corner of the country. Nevertheless, in the late 1980s, forests remained a valuable national resource, occupying almost 27 percent of the country's territory Columbia Absolute Location: 04 degrees 00' N and 72 degrees 00' W
Relative Location: northwestern South America, bordered to the northwest by Panama; to the north by the Caribbean Sea; to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru; and to the west by the Pacific Ocean.
Human Characteristics: Statue of Sebastián de, Vargas Swamp Lancers or Monumento a los Lanceros is a large sculptural complex realized by Colombian artist Rodrigo Arenas Betancur in the department of Boyacá (Colombia) as a memorial for Vargas Swamp Battle. Belalcázar in the Colombian city of Santiago de Cali
Physical Characteristics: Amazon Rainforest, To the north the arid Atacama Desert separates it from Peru. The high Andes peaks constitute its natural frontier with Bolivia and Argentina. To the south, the cold waters of the Drake Sea announce the nearness of Antarctica. To the west, Chile looks at endless masses of the South Pacific water. Between the huge Andes Mountains (to the east) and the lower Coastal mountains (to the west) is the great Central Valley, which extends from Salamanca, north of Santiago, for over 620 miles (1,000 kilometers) south to Puerto Montt. The country has a total area of 292,260 square miles (756,950 square kilometers).
Humans Modify the Environment: Human induced deforestation has started to creep into the rainforests of Amazonia and the Pacific coast and has substantially changed the Andean landscape. Deforestation is also linked to the conversion of lowland tropical forests to palm oil plantations. However, compared to neighboring countries rates of deforestation in Colombia are still relatively low.
Humans Adapt to the Environment: In spite of the difficulties presented by serious internal armed conflict, Colombia's market economy grew steadily in the latter part of the 20th century, with gross domestic product (GDP) increasing at an average rate of over 4% per year between 1970 and 1998.
Humans Depend on the Environment: The production of coffee, flowers, emeralds, textiles, industrial chemicals, plastics, ferro-alloys, coal, oil and financial services are the most representative sectors of Colombia's economy. Colombia is an emerging market and it is also part of the group of emerging countries CIVETS.. The hydrography of Colombia is one of the richest in the world. Its main rivers are Magdalena, Cauca, Guaviare, and Caquetá. Colombia has four main drainage systems: the Pacific drain, the Caribbean drain, the Orinoco Basin and the Amazon Basin. The Orinoco and Amazon Rivers mark limits with Colombia to Venezuela and Peru respectively
Humans Adapt to the Environment:
Movements made by People: China is Colombia's second largest trade partner after the USA.
Movements made by Goods: The production of coffee, flowers, emeralds, textiles, industrial chemicals, plastics, ferro-alloys, coal, oil and financial services are the most representative sectors of Colombia's economy
Movements made by Ideas: From the diversity of fauna and flora in Colombia arises essentially varied cuisine Creole, with little influence of foreign cuisines. The Colombian dishes in preparation and ingredients vary by region and incorporate the traditions of Spanish culture, mestizo and Afro. Some of the most common ingredients in the preparations are cereals such as rice and maize, tubers such as Pope and cassava, varieties of legumes (beans), meat as vaccine, chicken, pork, goat, guinea pigs and other wildlife, fish and seafood. It is important also the variety of tropical fruits such as mango, the banana, the papaya, the guava, the pineapple, the lulo, and passionfruit.
Formal Region: Amazon Region, Andean Region, Caribbean Region, Insular Region, Orinoquía Region, Pacific Region.
Functional Region: The Colombian airport system, has about 1,101 airports and airfields between public and private, of which 13 of them are international airports. The main air terminal in the country, is the El Dorado International Airport of Bogotá, with about 20 million passengers per year, making it one of the most dynamic airports in Latin America. China and Colombia have discussed a Panama Canal rival, a 'Dry Canal' 220 km rail link between the Pacific and a new city near Cartagena.
Vernacular Region: South America Chile Absolute Location: 27 degrees 90 S and 109 degrees 25.50 W
Relative Location: Polynesian island in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, at the southeasternmost point of the Polynesian Triangle.
Human Characteristics: When we think of Eastern Island we think of of huge stone carved figures -monoliths- that dot the coastline.
They are called Moai and are carved from island rock. The Moai are seen all over the island, and in different shapes, sizes, and stages of completion. Many Moaiare left unfinished at the quarry site. No one is sure yet as to what purposes did the Moai served, but outside scholarly research together with accumulated local knowledge, shows evidence that the Moai were carved by the ancestors of the present inhabitants.
Physical Characteristics: The most obvious factor in Chile's remarkable slenderness is the massive, virtually impassable wall of the Andes, a mountain range that is still rising and that contains more than fifty active volcanic peaks. All along its length Chile is marked by a narrow depression between the mountains and the sea. To the north the land rises and becomes more arid, until one reaches the forbidding Atacama Desert, one of the most inhospitable regions on earth. To the south just the opposite transformation takes place: the land falls away, and the region between mountains and ocean fades into the baffling archipelagic maze that terminates in Chilean Patagonia.
Humans Modify the Environment: Most Chilean towns and cities were originally designed following the classical Spanish pattern. They normally possess a central square ( plaza de armas ) from which lanes and streets extend in a straight line to four cardinal points. In the past, the central square was surrounded by a town hall ( cabildo ), a Catholic church or cathedral, and houses of notable families. The mining sector in Chile is one of the pillars of Chilean economy and copper exports alone stands for more than one third of government income. Most mining in Chile is concentrated to the Norte Grande region spanning most of the Atacama Desert. Mining products of Chile includes copper, gold, silver, molybdenum, iron and coal.
Humans Depend on the Environment:Midden contents show that the main source of protein was tuna and dolphin. With the loss of the trees, there was a sudden drop in the quantities of fish bones found in middens as the islanders lost the means to construct fishing vessels, coinciding with a large increase in bird bones. This was followed by a decrease in the number of bird bones as birds lost their nesting sites or became extinct. A new style of art from this period shows people with exposed ribs and distended bellies, indicative of malnutrition, and it is around this time that many islanders moved to living in fortified caves and the first signs of warfare and cannibalism appear
Humans Adapt to the Environment: The earthquake and tsunami that rocked Chile in 2010 unleashed substantial and surprising changes on ecosystems "Plants are coming back in places where there haven't been plants, as far as we know, for a very long time," said researcher Jenny Dugan, a biologist at the University of California, Santa Barbara. "This is not the initial ecological response you might expect from a major earthquake and tsunami."
Movements made by People: US 15.8%, Japan 11.1%, China 11.1%, Netherlands 5.8%, South Korea 5.5%, Brazil 4.4%, Italy 4.1%, Mexico 4.1%
Movements made by Goods: petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, electrical and telecommunications equipment, industrial machinery, vehicles, natural gas.
Movements made by Ideas: Music in Chile ranges from folkloric music, popular music and also to classical music. Its large geography generates different musical expressions in the north, center and south of the country, including also Easter Island and Mapuche music. The national dance is the cueca. Another form of traditional Chilean song, though not a dance, is the tonada. Arising from music imported by the Spanish colonists, it is distinguished from the cueca by an intermediate melodic section and a more prominent melody.
Formal Region: The Andes Mountains, Easter Island
Functional Region: Transport in Chile is mostly by road. The south of the country is not connected to central Chile by road, except through Argentina, and water transport also plays a part there. The railways were historically important in Chile, but now play a relatively small part in the country's transport system. Because of the country's geography and long distances between major cities, aviation is also important
Vernacular Region: It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far south. Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez, Desventuradas and Easter Island.
Fun Fact: The flag of Chile is similar to the Flag of Texas, although the Chilean flag is 21 years older. However, like the Texan flag, the flag of Chile is modeled after the Flag of the United States. Sydney Absolute Location: 27 degrees 00' S and 133 degrees 00' E.
Relative Location: It is on the south-east coast of the Tasman Sea.
Human Characteristics:The 'City Centre' refers to Pitt Street Mall, Market Street (home to department stores likeDavid Jones), and a maze of arcades which include Centrepoint Shopping Centre at the base of the AMP Tower (Centrepoint). Town Hall Arcade, adjoining Town Hall Station, the city's rail hub, connects underground to the opulent Queen Victoria Building.
Physical Characteristics: From beautiful Palm Beach, down through Whale Beach, Avalon Beach, Bilgola Beach, Newport Beach and Mona Vale Beach - the Northern Beaches not only offer great surfing, but great sailing, lush parks and gardens
Humans Adapt to the Environment: Australia has a variety of climatic and environmental conditions that require no more adaptation than the conditions in North or South America, or even parts of Europe. For the most part, Australians settle in the coastal areas, and build houses according to the conditions.
Humans Modify the Environment: thousands of apartment buildings now punctuate the skyline and fierce battles continue to rage over 'The Toaster' at Circular Quay, the Monorail, Fox Studios and the future of the Walsh Bay Wharves. It is becoming increasingly difficult to find traces of the past within the city apart from Macquarie Street and the touristy Rocks area
Humans Depend on the Environment: They depend on the oceans and animals around them for food and materials.
Movement made by People: As a dynamic cultural hub, Sydney has many fine and internationally known museums and galleries, such as the Art Gallery of New South Wales, the Museum of Contemporary Art, the White Rabbit Gallery, Brett Whiteley Studio, Museum of Sydney and the Powerhouse Museum, in addition to a thriving commercial gallery scene of contemporary art, mainly in the inner-city areas of Waterloo, Surry Hills, Darlinghurst, Paddington, Chippendale, Newtown and Woollahra.
Movement made by Goods: China is Australia's biggest trading partner mainly due to China's strong demand for iron ore, coal and liquefied natural gas. Exports to China helped Australia escape the worst effects of the global economic meltdown over the past two years.
Movement made by Ideas: Sydney is a gourmet paradise, with an abundance of fresh seafood, a vast range of vegetables and fruit always in season, prime meats at inexpensive prices, and top-quality chefs making international names for themselves. You'll find that Asian and Mediterranean cooking have had a major influence on Australian cuisine, with spices and herbs finding their way into most dishes.
Formal Region: Australia
Functional Region: The ANZAC Bridge, spanning Johnstons Bay between Pyrmont and Glebe Island in proximity to Sydney's central business district, with the Sydney Harbour Bridge in the background. Sydney Airport is located in close proximity to the city.
Vernacular Region: Australia's south-east coast, Egypt Absolute Location:30 degrees 06' N and 31 degrees 25' E
Relative Location: spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Human Characteristics:The Great Sphinx of Giza. It's a limestone statue of a reclining or couchant sphinx (a mythical creature with a lion's body and a human head) that stands on the Giza Plateau on the west bank of the Nile in Giza, Egypt.
It is the largest monolith statue in the world, standing 73.5 metres (241 ft) long, 19.3 metres (63 ft) wide, and 20.22 m (66.34 ft) high. It is the oldest known monumental sculpture, and is commonly believed to have been built by ancient Egyptians of the Old Kingdom during the reign of the Pharaoh Khafra (c. 2558–2532 BC).
Physical Characteristics: Nile river
Humans Modify the Environment: Egypt is divided into two unequal, extremely arid regions by the landscape's dominant feature, the northward-flowing Nile River. The Nile starts 100 mi (161 km) south of the Mediterranean and fans out to a sea front of 155 mi between the cities of Alexandria and Port Said.
Humans Adapt to the Environment: The natural resources of Egypt mainly refer to the oil and gas of Egypt. The oil reserves of Egypt draw huge annual revenues from its export profits. There are of course other natural resources as well. These include iron ore, phosphate, limestone, manganese talc, zinc, asbestos and gypsum. However, the analysis of the Egyptian natural resources would remain incomplete without the consideration of those resources, which had been bringing prosperity to the land of Egypt in the ancient times of Pharoic domination.
Humans Depend on the Environment: Egypt's economy depends mainly on agriculture, media, petroleum exports, exports of natural gas, and tourism; there are also more than three million Egyptians working abroad, mainly in Saudi Arabia, the Persian Gulf and Europe.
Movements made by People: Import partners: US 10.8%, Germany 7.3%, China 6.6%, France 6.4%, Italy 5.9%, Saudi Arabia 4.5%
Movements made by goods: Egypt has a developed energy market based on coal, oil, natural gas, and hydro power. Substantial coal deposits are in the northeast Sinai, and are mined at the rate of about 600,000 metric tons (590,000 long tons; 660,000 short tons) per year. Oil and gas are produced in the western desert regions, the Gulf of Suez, and the Nile Delta. Egypt has huge reserves of gas, estimated at 1,940 cubic kilometres (470 cu mi), and LNG is exported to many countries.
Movements made by ideas: Egyptian cuisine is notably conducive to vegetarian diets, as it relies heavily on vegetable dishes. Though food in Alexandria and the coast of Egypt tends to use a great deal of fish and other seafood, for the most part Egyptian cuisine is based on foods that grow out of the ground. Meat has been very expensive for most Egyptians throughout history, and a great deal of vegetarian dishes have developed to work around this economic reality.
Formal Region: The great majority of its over 84 million peoplelive near the banks of the Nile River, an area of about 40,000 square kilometers (15,000 sq mi), where the only arable land is found. The large regions of the Sahara Desert, which constitute most of Egypt's territory, are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypt's residents live in urban areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo, Alexandria and other major cities in the Nile Delta.
Functional Region: Transport in Egypt is centered in Cairo and largely follow the pattern of settlement along the Nile. The main line of the nation's 40,800-kilometer (25,400 mi) railway network runs from Alexandria to Aswan and is operated by Egyptian National Railways. The badly maintained road network has expanded rapidly to over 21,000 miles, covering the Nile Valley and Nile Delta, Mediterranean and Red Sea coasts, the Sinai, and the Western oases.
Vernacular Region: North East Africa Morocco Absolute Location: 32 degrees 00 N and 05 degrees 00 W
Relative Location: Most westerly of the North African countries
Humans Characteristics: The Mausoleum of Mohammed V in Rabat, The Kasbah of Aït Benhaddou,built by the Berbers from the 14th century onwards.
Physical Characteristics: High Atlas in central Morocco. The Rif Mountains. Morocco claims that the Western Sahara is part of its territory and refers to that as its Southern Provinces.
Humans Modify the Environment: Housing in Morocco ranges from the traditional to the ultramodern. In rural areas, some Moroccans still reside in ksour and agricultural villages. Living conditions in these places remain severe.
Humans Adapt to the Environment: Moroccan economic policies brought macroeconomic stability to the country in the early 1990s but have not spurred growth sufficient to reduce unemployment - nearing 20% in urban areas - despite the Moroccan Government's ongoing efforts to diversify the economy. Morocco's GDP growth rose to 5.9% in 2008, with the economy recovering from a drought in 2007 that severely reduced agricultural output and necessitated wheat imports at rising world prices.
Humans Depend on the Environment:The major resources of the Moroccan economy are agriculture, phosphates, and tourism. Sales of fish and seafood are important as well. Industry and mining contribute about one-third of the annual GDP. Morocco is the world's third-largest producer of phosphorus after China and the United States, and the price fluctuations of phosphates on the international market greatly influence Morocco's economy.
Movements made by People: Moroccan trade is still dominated by its main import and export partner France, although France's share in Moroccan trade is declining, in favour of the US, the Gulf Region and China. If seen as a single entity, the EU is by far Morocco's largest trading partner.
Movements made by Goods: Manufacturing accounts for about one-sixth of GDP and is steadily growing in importance in the economy. Two particularly important components of the country’s industrial makeup are processing raw materials for export and manufacturing consumer goods for the domestic market.
Movements made by ideas: Moroccan literature is written in Arabic, Berber and French. Under the Almohad dynasty Morocco experienced a period of prosperity and brilliance of learning. The Almohad built the Marrakech Koutoubia Mosque, which accommodated no fewer than 25,000 people, but was also famed for its books, manuscripts, libraries and book shops, which gave it its name; the first book bazaar in history.
Formal Region: The Atlas Mountains comprise three distinct chains. The High Atlas (Haut Atlas), 460 miles (740 km) long, begins as small hills at the edge of the Atlantic, rises rapidly to more than 6,500 feet (2,000 metres), and reaches 13,665 feet (4,165 metres) at Mount Toubkal, Morocco’s highest point. The Middle Atlas (Moyen Atlas) trends away from the High Atlas in a northerly direction, rising to 10,958 feet (3,340 metres) at its crest. The Anti-Atlas extends southwestward from the High Atlas to the Atlantic.
Functional Region: The Tangier-Casablanca high-speed rail link marks the first stage of the ONCF’s high-speed rail master plan, pursuant to which over 1,500 km (930 mi) of new railway lines will be built by 2035 The high speed train -TGV- will carry 8 million passengers per year. It will have a capacity of 500 passengers. The work in the High Speed Train project has started in September 2011 and the infrastructure works and railway equipment will end in 2014, and the HST will be operational in December 2015
Vernacular Region: The Kingdom of Morocco is the most westerly of the North African countries. Yemen Absolute Location: 15 degrees 0' N and 48 degrees 0 ' E
Relative Location: It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north, the Red Sea to the west, the Gulf of Aden and Arabian Sea to the south, and Oman to the east.
Human Characteristics: In the 8th century BC, the Sabaens built the 1,894-foot-high and 3,000-foot long Marib Dam
Physical Characteristics: mountainous north of the Tagus River, rolling plains in south
Humans Adapt to the Environment: mostly desert; hot and humid along west coast; temperate in western mountains affected by seasonal monsoon; extraordinarily hot, dry, harsh desert in east, therefor they need to dress thin, covering as much as possible.
Humans Modify the Environment:
Apart from a relatively few pastoral nomads who live in tents or caves, most residents are urban dwellers (one-fourth) and sedentary agriculturalists.
Humans Depend on the Environment: Yemen's economy depends heavily on the oil it produces.
Movement made by People: Export partners: China 37.3%, Chile 19.6%, Thailand 12.8%, Japan 5.6%, US 4.2%
Movement made by Goods: crude oil, coffee, dried and salted fish.
Movement made by Ideas: food and live animals, machinery and equipment, chemicals
Formal Region: strategic location on Bab el Mandeb, the strait linking the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, one of world's most active shipping lanes
Formal Region: Asia
Functional Region: strategic location on Bab el Mandeb, the strait linking the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, one of world's most active shipping lanes
Vernacular Region: slightly larger than twice the size of Wyoming Tasmania Absolute Location: 27 degrees 00' S and 133 degrees 00' E
Relative Location: an island state, part of the Commonwealth of Australia, located 240 kilometers (150 mi) to the south of the Australian continent, separated by the Bass Strait.
Human Characteristics: Tasman Bridge
Physical Characteristics: The island is believed to have been joined to the mainland of Australia until the end of the last glacial period approximately 10,000 years ago. Much of the island is composed of Jurassic dolerite intrusions (upwellings of magma) through other rock types, sometimes forming large columnar joints. Tasmania has the world's largest areas of dolerite, with many distinctive mountains and cliffs formed from this rock type.
Humans Depend on the Environment: Tasmania’s electricity is hydro-generated and energy is also being harnessed from the wind.
Humans Adapt to the Environment: The highest recorded maximum temperature in Tasmania was 42.2 °C (108.0 °F) at Scamander on 30 January 2009, during the 2009 southeastern Australia heat wave. Tasmania's lowest recorded minimum temperature was 13 °C (8.6 °F) on 30 June 1983, at Butlers Gorge, Shannon, and Tarraleah.
Humans Modify the Environment: Sawmilling and woodchipping industries are important. Agriculture is confined almost exclusively to small farms; among the crops grown are opium poppies for medicinal drugs. The raising of sheep for wool in the east and dairy farming in the northwest are also important. The mining of copper, zinc, tin, lead, and iron has increased in recent years. The state's major manufactures are metals and metal products. Tourism also is growing in significance, due in part to better ferry connections to the continent
Movements made by People:Scattered across Tasmania are many vineyards, and Tasmanian beer brands such as Boags and Cascade are known and sold in Mainland Australia.
Movements made by Goods: manufacture of textiles, machinery, including marine, automotive components, heavy engineering and mining equipment, as well as the output of two ship-building companies, About half of all Australian exports of woodchips, newsprint and writing paper come from Tasmania. Unprocessed wild fisheries, harvesting abalone and rock lobster in the main, and farmed Atlantic salmon contribute about one hundred and fifty million Australian dollars to the Tasmanian economy every year. Beef and, to a lesser extent, lamb exports bring in around one hundred and twenty million Australian dollars into the Tasmanian economy every year. Tasmania is the only state in Australia that has a legislated prohibition on the use of hormone growth promotants, and that gives exporters an edge in certain markets.
Movements made by Ideas: Tasmania has a varied musical scene, ranging from the Tasmanian Symphony Orchestra whose home is the Federation Concert Hall, to a substantial number of small bands, orchestras, string quintets, saxophone ensembles and individual artists who perform at a variety of venues around the state. Tasmania is also home to a vibrant community of composers including Constantine Koukias, Maria Grenfell and Don Kay, who is the patron of the Tasmanian Composers Collectiv, the representative body for composers in Tasmania. During colonial times the cuisines of the British Isles were the standard in most areas of Tasmania. Tasmania now has a wide range of restaurants, in part due to the arrival of immigrants and changing cultural patterns. Scattered across Tasmania are many vineyards, and Tasmanian beer brands such as Boags and Cascade are known and sold in Mainland Australia. King Island off the northwestern coast of Tasmania has a reputation for boutique cheeses and dairy products. Tasmanians are also consumers of seafood, such as crayfish, orange roughy, salmon and oysters, both farmed and wild
Formal Region: Island state located 240 kilometres (150 mi) to the south of the Australian continent,
Functional Region: Tasmania's main air carriers are Jetstar Airways and Virgin Australia; Qantas, QantasLink and Regional Express Airlines have services from Tasmania.
Vernacular Region: the southernmost internationally recognised land in Australia.
Fun Fact: Because there is a lack of vast metropolitan spread in Tasmania, the minimal artificial light reflecting in the night sky means it is an exceptional location for viewing the Milky Way and one of the wonders of the cosmos; the magnificent Aurora Australis. The air in Tasmania is also exceptionally clean, unpolluted by urban sprawl. Nova Scotia Absolute Location: 44º 65' N, 63º 57' W
Relative Location: a landfall lighthouse located at the entrance to Halifax Harbour, Nova Scotia, on an island near the community of Sambro in the Halifax Regional Municipality.
Human Characteristics: It is the oldest surviving lighthouse in North America and a National Historic Site of Canada. The Sambro lighthouse was built during the Seven years War by the very first act passed by Nova Scotia's House of Assembly on October 2, 1758 which placed a tax on incoming vessels and alcohol imports to pay for the lighthouse
Physical Characteristics: The mainland portion of the Nova Scotia peninsula is attached to North America through the Isthmus of Chignecto. Various offshore islands, the largest of which is Cape Breton Island, form the bulk of the eastern part of the province.
Humans Depend on the Environment: Lobster, scallops, and haddock are the biggest catches. Offshore deposits of natural gas have begun to be exploited. Inland, the forests yield spruce lumber, and the province's industries produce much pulp and paper.
Humans Modify the Environment: Mining has been historically critical to Nova Scotia. Gypsum, barite, and salt are mined.Manufacturing is the largest sector of Nova Scotia's economy. In addition to the iron and steel produced at Sydney, the province's manufactures include processed food (especially fish), automobiles, tires, sugar, and construction materials
Humans Adapt to the Environment:
Nova Scotia's traditionally resource-based economy has become somewhat more diverse in recent decades. The rise of Nova Scotia as a viable jurisdiction in North America, historically, was driven by the ready availability of natural resources, especially the fish stocks off the Scotian Shelf.
Movements made by People: Germany is Nova Scotia's main import supplier (31.7 percent of all imports), followed by the United Kingdom, the United States, Norway, and Cuba
Movements made by Goods: Nova Scotia Power Inc. (NSPI) is responsible for generating and distributing electricity. During the 1980s, NSPI adopted an operating plan based on conversion to coal generation from imported oil. By 1992 the dependence on oil-fired generation was cut to less than 25 percent. In December 2001, Nova Scotia released a new energy strategy. It was designed to allow for the gradual introduction of competition in the industry. The plan also called for the development of renewable energy sources, reduction of emissions, and the development of clean coal technologies.
Movements made by Ideas: Nova Scotia has long been a centre for artistic and cultural excellence. The capital, Halifax, hosts institutions such as Nova Scotia College of Art and Design University, Art Gallery of Nova Scotia, Neptune Theatre, Two Planks and a Passion Theatre, Ship's Company Theatre and the Symphony Nova Scotia. The province is home to avant-garde visual art and traditional crafting, writing and publishing and a film industry.
Formal Region: Cape Breton
Functional Region: National and regional air service is provided at Yarmouth, Sydney, and Halifax International Airport. Air Canada, Canadian International Airlines, KLM, Air Nova, Air Atlantic, and Northwest Airlink provide regular scheduled service to all Canadian points and international service to Boston, New York, Bermuda, London, Glasgow, and Amsterdam
Vernacular Region: Located almost exactly halfway between the Equator and the North Pole Colorado Absolute Location: 38.46167°N 105.325°W
Relative Location: U.S. state that encompasses most of the Southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains. Colorado is part of the Western United States, the Southwestern United States, and the Mountain States
Physical Characteristics: A little over one third of the area of Colorado is flat and rolling land. East of the Rocky Mountains are the Colorado Eastern Plains of the High Plains, the section of the Great Plains within Colorado at elevations ranging from roughly 3,350 to 7,500 feet. To the west of Great Plains of Colorado rises the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains. Notable peaks of the Rocky Mountains include Longs Peak, Mount Evans, Pikes Peak, and the Spanish Peaks near Walsenburg, in southern Colorado
Human Characteristics:The Royal Gorge Bridge is a tourist attraction near Cañon City, Colorado, within a 360-acre theme park. The bridge deck hangs 955 feet above the Arkansas River, and held the record of highest bridge in the world from 1929 until 2001. The summit of Mount Elbert at 14,440 feet in elevation in Lake County is the highest point of Colorado and the Rocky Mountains. Colorado is the only U.S. state that lies entirely above 1,000 meters (3,281 ft) elevation. The point where the Arikaree River flows out of Yuma County, Colorado, and into Cheyenne County, Kansas, is the lowest point in Colorado at 3,317 feet (1,011 m) elevation. This point, which holds the distinction of being the highest low elevation point of any state, and is higher than the high elevation points of 18 states and the District of Columbia.
Humans Depend on the Environment: Early prospecting and mining operations in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado
Humans Modify the Environment: by cutting down forests to make cities, using water from the Ogallala Aquifer, building mine shafts and mining for minerals, drilling oil for gasoline, digging dams to help control flooding.
Humans Adapt to the Environment: A Cabin that includes a primary heat source and living facilities for sleeping, eating, cooking and sanitation will be considered to be a single-family dwelling.
Movements made by People:Top 5 main suppliers: Canada, China, Mexico, Germany, & Switzerland.
Movements made by Goods: Oil & Gas, Mining & Reclamation, Water Conservation, & water resources.
Movements made by Ideas: Colorado is known for its Southwest and Rocky Mountain cuisine. Mexican restaurants are throughout the state.
Boulder, Colorado was named America’s Foodiest Town 2010 by Bon Appétit. Boulder, and Colorado in general, is home to a number of national food and beverage companies, top-tier restaurants and farmers' markets. Boulder, Colorado also has more Master Sommeliers per capita than any other city, including San Francisco and New York.
Formal Region: Rocky Mountains,Colorado Plateau, Great Plains, Pike's Peak
Functional Region: Denver International
Vernacular Region: Colorado is part of the Western United States, the Southwestern United States, and the Mountain States The Royal Gorge Bridge The Great Sphinx of Giza Easter Island Sambro Island Lighthouse Sanaa Bran Castle Santander Absolute Location: 47° 55 0 N, 106° 53 0 E
Relative Location: a landlocked country in East and Central Asia. It borders Russia to the north and the autonomous region of Inner Mongolia, China to the south, east and west
Human Characteristics: The Potala Palace
Physical Characteristics: Himalayas, The Yarlung Tsangpo Grand Canyon, along the Yarlung Tsangpo River, is among the deepest and longest canyons in the world.
Humans Adapt to the Environment:
Humans Modify the Environment: Emerging with control over most of mainland China after the Chinese Civil War, the People's Republic of China incorporated Tibet in 1950 and negotiated the Seventeen Point Agreement with the newly enthroned 14th Dalai Lama's government, affirming the People's Republic of China's sovereignty but granting the area autonomy.
Humans Depend on the Environment: The Tibetan economy is dominated by subsistence agriculture. Due to limited arable land, the primary occupation of the Tibetan Plateau is raising livestock, such as sheep, cattle, goats, camels, yaks, dzo, and horses. The main crops grown are barley, wheat, buckwheat, rye, potatoes, and assorted fruits and vegetables. Tibet is ranked the lowest among China’s 31 provinces on the Human Development Index according to UN Development Programme data.
Movement made by People: Tibet's main trading partners are Bhutan,Europe and India. Tibet's most trusted allies are the Empire of Bhutan and the Abbasid Caliphate
Movement made by goods: Traditionally, goods for trade, particularly foreign trade, were carried by pack trains (yaks, mules, and horses) across the windswept plateau and over difficult mountain passes. In exchange for hides, wool, and salt there were imports of tea and silk from China and of manufactured goods from India. Motor roads now connect Lhasa with Qamdo (Chamdo) in E Tibet and with Xigazê and Gyangzê in the Yarlung Zangbo area and link Gar (Gartok) in W Tibet to the northern regions.
Movement made by Ideas: Tibetan representations of art are intrinsically bound with Tibetan Buddhism and commonly depict deities or variations of Buddha in various forms from bronze Buddhist statues and shrines, to highly colorful thangka paintings and mandalas.
Formal Region: Almost completely surrounded by mountain ranges (including the Himalayas in the south and the Kunlun in the north)
Functional Region: A major highway runs from Tibet to Chengdu, in Sichuan prov., providing a link to the great Chinese cities in the east; Tibet is also connected by highway with Xinjiang and Qinghai in W China. A rail link to Qinghai prov. was opened in 2006
Vernacular Region: Tibet is the highest region on earth, with an average elevation of 4,900 metres (16,000 ft).
Fun Fact: Tibet is often called the "roof of the world." Tibet Royal Tasmanian
Botanical Gardens Merzouga Humans Adapt to the Environment: Along with an abundance of fertile soil, Romanian agriculture benefits from a temperate climate and generally adequate precipitation. The growing season is relatively long--from 180 to 210 days. Rainfall averages 637 millimeters per year, ranging from less than 400 millimeters in Dobruja and the Danube Delta to over 1,010 millimeters in the mountains. In the main grain-growing regions, annual precipitation averages about 508 to 584 millimeters. Droughts occur periodically and can cause major agricultural losses despite extensive irrigation. The drought of 1985 was particularly damaging.
Movements Made by People: The official language of Romania is Romanian, a Romance language related to Italian, French, Catalan, Spanish and Portuguese. Romanian is spoken as a first language by 91% of the population
Movements Made by Ideas: Tourism focuses on the country's natural landscapes and its rich history and is a significant contributor to the Romanian economy. In 2006, domestic and international tourism generated about 4.8% of gross domestic product and 5.8% of the total jobs (about half a million jobs). Following commerce, tourism is the second largest component of the services sector
Movements Made by Goods: Since December 1989, Romania has pursued a policy of strengthening relations with the West in general, more specifically with the United States and the European Union
Formal Region: Carpathian Mountains
Functional Region: Romania has 16 international airports, of which the busiest are Henri Coand International Airport (7,120,067 passengers, 2012) and Aurel Vlaicu International Airport (2,398,911 passengers, 2011).
Vernacular Region: The Carpathian Mountains divide Romania's upper half from north to south and connect near the center of the country with the Transylvanian Alps, running east and west.