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Animal Kingdom

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Pablo Valencia

on 4 April 2016

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Transcript of Animal Kingdom

ANIMAL KINGDOM
Eukaryotes
Multicellular
Heterotrophs
Most of them are motile
Sexual reproduction, some asexual too
Levels 2, 3, 4 and 5

ACOELOMATES
CNIDARIA
PLACOZOA
COELOMATES
PSEUDO
COELOMATES

CTENOPHORA
MESOZOA
GNATHOSTOMULIDA
PLATYHELMINTHES
NEMERTINES
LORICIFERA
GASTROTRICHA
ENTOPROCTA
ACANTHOCEPHALA
ROTIFERA
NEMATOMORPHA
KINORHYNCHA
NEMATODE
ARTHROPODA
MOLLUSCA
CHORDATA
BRACHIOPODA
PRIAPULIDA
ECHIURA
PENTASTOMA
ECTOPROCTA
PHORONIDA
TARDIGRADA
ONYCHOPHORA
SIPUNCULA
CHAETOGNATHA
POGONOPHORA
PRIAPULIDA
MONOPLACOPHORA
GASTROPODS
NUTRITION
They live from filtering the water, taking organic nutrients directly
INTERACTION
All adults live attached to the ground, so they don’t move
REPRODUCTION
ASEXUAL: budding
SEXUAL: When an ovule and a spermatozoa come together, the new living being becomes a small larva that can swim freely. Once the larva attaches to the ground, it grows forming an adult porifera

ENVIRONMENT
BODY FORM
They are all aquatic; most of them live in the sea
They have skin of flat cells. There are flagellated cells inside the cavities to make the water flow. The rest of the body is a matrix of cells, proteins and a skeleton of spicules of silicon and calcium.
NERVOUS SYSTEM
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM
BREATHING SYSTEM
PORIFERA
NUTRITION
INTERACTION
REPRODUCTION
ENVIRONMENT
BODY FORM
NERVOUS SYSTEM
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM
BREATHING SYSTEM
NUTRITION
INTERACTION
REPRODUCTION
ENVIRONMENT
BODY FORM
NERVOUS SYSTEM
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM
BREATHING SYSTEM
They are carnivores: they eat other animals
They eat microorganisms (plancton) or small fishes
They paralyze the fish with stinging cells (nematocysts)
POLYP: don't move anything at all
MEDUSA: they swim
ASEXUAL: by budding
SEXUAL: male and female gametes create a larva
They are all aquatic. Most of them can be found in the sea. Others in rivers or lakes
MEDUSA:Umbrella‐shape
Mouth downwards
POLYP: Bag‐shape
Mouth upwards
They have some cells connected, not a real tissue
They have simple sense organs
They have a gastrovascular cavity
They ingest the food
They digest the food in the cavity
Then expulse the waste through the same hole
The Skin can compress the body. That is how they move
They don't have locomotor system or muscles
Every cell take oxygen directly from the water
Free living
Parasite
Most of them are aquatic
Some can be terrestrial, but in very wet environments
They swim performing ondulatory waves
They can also crawl
They move looking for food
ASEXUAL: they reproduce by fragmentation
SEXUAL: they are male and female at the same time. They fertilize and get fertilized. They lay the eggs under plants or stones
Small flat worm
They are carnivores. They feed on small animals or pieces of meat.
They trap the preys, then surround it and start eating by pieces
They have sense organ to smell their preys
They have nerves along the body to coordinate the movement
They have an external pharynx connected to a gastrovascular cavity.
Half of the digestion is external and the other half is internal
They take oxygen directly from the environment through the skin
They have muscles under the skin
NUTRITION
INTERACTION
REPRODUCTION
ENVIRONMENT
BODY FORM
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
NERVOUS SYSTEM
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM
BREATHING SYSTEM
NUTRITION
INTERACTION
REPRODUCTION
ENVIRONMENT
BODY FORM
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
NERVOUS SYSTEM
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM
BREATHING SYSTEM
NUTRITION
INTERACTION
REPRODUCTION
ENVIRONMENT
BODY FORM
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
NERVOUS SYSTEM
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM
BREATHING SYSTEM
They have parasite nutrition
They live on living organisms, inside the intestine. They absorbs the nutrients from the food passing by the intestine
As they are parasite they move nothing at all
ASEXUAL: They alternate 2 hosts. The eggs from an infected person fall to the grass, then is eaten by a farming animal. The animal is infected and can infect other people who eats the meat without medical controls
SEXUAL: If two worms meet in an intestine they can fertilize each other
They live inside a living animal.
Their eggs can survive for a time outside the body
They die if they are exposed to high temperatures
They have a head (scolex) with a hook and suckers to keep attached to the host. After the neck the have thousand of bags full of eggs (proglottids)
They absorb the nutrients through the skin. They don't need a digestive tube
They breath through the skin
Free living
Parasite
They can feed in different ways:
Some eat microorganisms: bacterias, yeasts and algae
Some are predators, eating other small animals
Other penetrate in plants to drink the sap
They can be found in almost every environment:
In the sea
In rivers and lakes
In the soil
They can be found in any climate: from the polar regions to the tropical forest, from the high mountains to the abyssal trenches
Small cylindrical body
They are very flexible
They have muscles along the body. The fibres start in the head and finish in the end of the animal.
They have hydrostatic skeleton: they compress the internal liquid to produce movement
They can swim or crawl
They have a digestive tube with a mouth and an anus
They have a simple nervous ring around the digestive tube. They have nervous cordons along the body to coordinate the movement
The have sense organs to detect the food
SEXUAL: a male and a female come together. Then the female lay the eggs. From every eggs grow a new worm
They take oxygen through the skin
Most of them are intestinal parasite. They drink the blood from the host
As they are parasite, they don't need moving
SEXUAL: both male and female meet in the host and lay eggs in the tissues. Worms can go from one animal to another by eating infected tissues or by insects
Inside an animal or a plant body
Small cylindrical body
They have a digestive tube with a mouth and an anus
They take oxygen through the skin
POLYPLACOPHORA
CAUDOFOVEATA
SOLENOGASTRES
SCAPHOPODA
NUTRITION
INTERACTION
REPRODUCTION
ENVIRONMENT
BODY FORM
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
NERVOUS SYSTEM
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM
BREATHING SYSTEM
BIVALVES
NUTRITION
INTERACTION
REPRODUCTION
ENVIRONMENT
BODY FORM
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
NERVOUS SYSTEM
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM
BREATHING SYSTEM
CEPHALOPODS
NUTRITION
INTERACTION
REPRODUCTION
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
NERVOUS SYSTEM
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM
BREATHING SYSTEM
MAMMALS
NUTRITION
INTERACTION
REPRODUCTION
ENVIRONMENT
BODY FORM
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
NERVOUS SYSTEM
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM
BREATHING SYSTEM
ENVIRONMENT
BODY FORM
They have 1 shell, but not always. It can be twisted or not
Most of the are herbivores. Some are scavengers
Others are carnivores
They use the radula to take pieces of food. It's adapted to the type of food
They crawl, some can climb
They are very slow because of the weight of the shell
They can be found almost everywhere:
In the sea, from abyssal plains to beaches
In the ground, from forest to high mountains
Some of them are male and female at the same time
The fertilization can be external (aquatic) or internal (terrestrial)
They lay eggs in the ground
They have mouth and anus
They have a stomach and gland (liver) to digest what they eat
According to the size they can breathe using:
Skin (small and no shell)
Lungs (terrestrial)
Gills (aquatic)
They have a muscle pod for moving
Open circulatory system
Heart with 3 cameras
Several cerebrial ganglion arond the mouth interconected
They have very primitive sense organs
Most of them filter the water to obtain nutrients.
They capture small particles of food using the gills, and then moving to the mouth.
They have a very simple digestive tube
Some don't move at all
Others can crawl and bury into the sand
Some can make short swims
They are all aquatic
They have 2 shells and the animal between them
The animal is like a bag of all the organs
They have a pod for moving
Very simple: 3 cerebral ganglia interconnected
They have some sensors.
The bivalves that can swim have several simple eyes
They have an open circulatory system. They have the heart around the stomach
They have ligaments for closing the valves
They have a muscle pod for moving
They have gills
Some have siphons to breathe under the sand
They can be male or female.
The gametes are usually expelled from the body, so there is a external fertilisation
They lay eggs
They are active predators
They are very fast and agile swimers
They are all aquatic
They have a head surrounded by tentacles
The pod is modified as a siphon to take and expulse water as a jet.
They may have internal, external o no shell
They have the biggest brain of all invertebrates
The have very advanced sense organs
They can communicate changing the colors of the skin
They have an open circulatory system with a heart.
They have small hearts next to the gills to take more oxygen from the water
They can move in different ways:
Using the tentacles
Expelling water through the siphon
Using small fins (like wings)
Using gas chamber to float
They have internal gills. As the water is expelled through the siphon, the water moves through the gills
They are male or female
The male has a modified tentacle to insert the gamets into the female.
The female lays eggs
ANNELIDA
NUTRITION
INTERACTION
REPRODUCTION
ENVIRONMENT
BODY FORM
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
NERVOUS SYSTEM
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM
BREATHING SYSTEM
Long worms formed by a lot of segments (rings). In every segment the organs are repeated
The digestive tube goes along the body
They have several cerebral ganglia in the head and two more in every segment. All the ganglia are interconnected.
They have a lot of sense organs
The have a closed circulatory system, with vessels under and above the digestive tube
They have an hydrostatic skeleton. The muscles of every ring compress to make the body long or short, thick or thin.
Some can crawl and may create tunnels
Others don't move anything at all
They can breathe through the skin (terrestrial) or using gills (aquatic)
If they move, they can be predators or just eating what they find underground
If the don't move, they capture small particles from the water
Some are parasits (leeches)
Most of them are aquatic
Some of the are terrestrial
They can be male, female or hermaphrodites (male and female at the same time).
If aquatic, the fertilisation is external
If terrestrial, the fertilisation is internal
They have a complex digestive system with digestive glands and a beak
ARACHNIDS
NUTRITION
INTERACTION
REPRODUCTION
ENVIRONMENT
BODY FORM
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
NERVOUS SYSTEM
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM
BREATHING SYSTEM
MYRIAPODS
NUTRITION
INTERACTION
REPRODUCTION
ENVIRONMENT
BODY FORM
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
NERVOUS SYSTEM
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM
BREATHING SYSTEM
CRUSTACEANS
NUTRITION
INTERACTION
REPRODUCTION
ENVIRONMENT
BODY FORM
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
NERVOUS SYSTEM
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM
BREATHING SYSTEM
INSECTS
NUTRITION
INTERACTION
REPRODUCTION
ENVIRONMENT
BODY FORM
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
NERVOUS SYSTEM
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM
BREATHING SYSTEM
They are all predators.
They use stings and venom to kill
They inject venom to disolve the body of the prey
CHELICERATES
PYCNOGONIDS
MEROSTOMATA
They walk, climb, crawl and jump
The can chase the prey or set traps (silk nets)
They are all terrestrial
They can be found in almost every corner of the world
Exoskeleton of proteins
(molting for growing)
There is a great variety of forms
The body is divided in 2 parts:
cephalothorax: head, mouth, 8 legs, brain and stomach
Abdomen: rest of the organs
Complete digestive system
They suck the liquids of the prey, so they make a simple digestion
Brain (they are intelligent)
8 simple eyes
Sensitive hair covering the body
Detect prey using the silk net
Open circulatory system
A heart in the abdomen
8 walking legs
Pedipalps next to the mouth, sometimes longer than the legs, sometimes modified as pincers
Trachea
Book lungs
Trachea + book lungs
They can be male or female
They perform a courtship before fertilisation
They have internal fertilisation
They lay eggs
Most of them are aquatic
Only a few are terrestrial
Mineral exoskeleton (molting for growing)
Body divided in 2 parts:
Cephalothorax: All the organs
Abdomen: The reproductive system and the intestine
Complete digestive system
Big stomach
Huge digestive gland to digest everything they eat
They have internal gills
They can breathe through the skin if they are very small
Open circulatory system
A heart in the head
Small brain in the head
Ganglia to coordinate the legs
2 advanced eyes
Sensitive hair to perceive environment
Good sense of taste
Strong muscles for moving
Very strong muscles in the abdomend for moving backwards (scaping)
Nutrition depending on the mouth:
Predators
Scavengers
Filtering water
Parasites
They crawl frontwards
They swim backwards
Very advanced sense organs
They can be male or female
They have internal fertilisation
Most of them incubate the eggs
Metamorphosis is very usual
TRILOBITA
UNIRAMIA
DIPLOPODS
PAUROPODS
Predators
They can kill preys bigger than them with their venom
They crawl very fast
They can climb
They can also swim
They can reach every place they want
They can be male or female
They have internal fertilisation
They can be oviparous or viviparous
They suffer no metamorphosis
They are all terrestrial
Very common in tropical climates
an be found in any wet place
Exoskeleton of proteins (moulting for growing)
A head and a segmented body
2 legs in every segment
All the organs repeated in every segment
Complete digestive system
They chew the prey as they eat
They have a brain and ganglia in every segment to coordinate the movement
Eyes and taste very developed
They have a heart
They have 2 vessels in every segment
2 legs in every segment
They can move very fast
Tracheal system in every segment
Tracheal system
They have muscles for moving legs, wings and every segment of the body
They have open circulatory system with a heart
Similar to crustaceans
Small brain and ganglia to coordinate the movement of the muscles
Eyes and taste very developed
Very complex digestive system, adapted to the nutrition
All types of nutrition:
hervibores
predators
scavengers
parasites
Exoskeleton of proteins (molting for growing)
Body divided in 3 parts:
Head: Brain and sense organs
Thorax: circulatory and locomotor systems (3 pair of legs and 2 pair of wings)
Abdomen: digestive and reproductive system
They can be found in every environment. They have colonized all the planet
They can be terrestrial, aquatic, aerial and living underground
They can be male or female
Sometiems there is a courtship
Fertilisation is internal
Lay eggs, sometimes inside antoher arthropod
Suffer a metamorphosis to become an adult
They can walk, jump, climb, swim, fly or excavate
They are born with a specific behaviour
They can communicate, some can create societies
VERTEBRATES
TUNICATA
CEPHALOCHORDATA
FISH
NUTRITION
INTERACTION
REPRODUCTION
ENVIRONMENT
SKIN
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
NERVOUS SYSTEM
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM
BREATHING SYSTEM
AMPHIBIANS
NUTRITION
INTERACTION
REPRODUCTION
ENVIRONMENT
BODY FORM
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
NERVOUS SYSTEM
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM
BREATHING SYSTEM
REPTILS
NUTRITION
INTERACTION
REPRODUCTION
ENVIRONMENT
BODY FORM
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
NERVOUS SYSTEM
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM
BREATHING SYSTEM
BIRDS
NUTRITION
INTERACTION
REPRODUCTION
ENVIRONMENT
BODY FORM
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
NERVOUS SYSTEM
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM
BREATHING SYSTEM
ECHINODERMS
NUTRITION
INTERACTION
REPRODUCTION
ENVIRONMENT
BODY FORM
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
NERVOUS SYSTEM
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM
BREATHING SYSTEM
They are carnivores. If they don't find food they can eat plants. They can be scavengers
They eat whatever they find, they can digest everything
They crawl
They are very slow
They can climb any place or attach to any surface
Ambulacral system:
Channels along the arms with pods
All the channel are connected to a circular channel around the mouth
They have gills all over the skin
Ambulacral system moves the water internally, so the tissues take oxygen from the water
Ambulacral system for moving nutrients along the body
3 Nervous system. Every one with a ring and cordons along the arms.
Sense organs not very developed. They feel by touch, temperature, light or chemical substances
They have a mouth with 5 powerful teeth (Aristotle's lantern) in the ventral side
They have stomach and digestive gland in every arm
They have the anus in the dorsal side
They can pull out the stomach
They are flat, with the shape of a star.
They have all the organs repeated in the arms
They also have a internal skeleton of spicules and tissues
Aquatic
They are male or female
They have external fertilisation and lay eggs
From the eggs a larva comes out, not a star.
They can reproduce Asexually by fragmentation
Brain with a nervous cordon
Sense organs in pairs
External skin, that can suffer modifications: fins, scales, hair, etc
Endoskeleton with a lot of muscles
Closed circulatory system with a heart, with several cameras
Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fish)
Osteichthyes (bony fish)
Cartilaginous fish:
Carnivores
Filtering water
Bony fish:
Carnivores
Herbivores
Scavengers
Parasit
BODY FORM
Cartilaginous fish:
internal fertilisation
Oviparous, some can be viviparous
Bony fish:
External fertilisation
Oviparous
They swim
They have special sensors to eat and avoid being eaten:
Lateral line (listen)
Lorezini ampullae (feel electricity)
They are all aquatic
Some can make short trips outside the water
They breathe using gills
Some have gills and 1 lung
Huge muscles attached to the endoskeleton to move the tail
Small fins to change direction
Bone fish have swim bladder to regulate how they float
Closed circulatory system
Heart with 2 cameras
Brain in the head
Nervous cordon to coordinate the movement of the muscles and transmit the information of the sensors
Soft skin covered by hard, hydrodynamic scales
Mouth adapted to nutrition
Large intestine with glands
Anus
Also kidneys
Long hydrodynamic body with all the organs. Mainly muscles
Head in the front with all the sensors, brain and mouth
SKIN
They have internal skeleton
Closed circulatory system
Double circuit: lungs and body
Heart with 3 cameras
Skin respiration
Gills or lungs depending on the environment
Thin and wet skin with glands
It can segregate venom
It can have a lot of different colors
Compact body
4 legs
Anura: back legs larger than front legs. Without tail
Caudata: front and back legs of same size. With tail
Male and female
Caudata: internal fertilisation, they lay eggs in the water (with metamorphosis) or the ground (no metamorphosis)
Anura: external fertilisation, they lay eggs in the water (with metamorphosis)
Carnivores: annelids, arthropods and small molluscs. They eat the whole prey, without cutting in pieces
Herbivores when they are larvae
Caudata can crawl, climb and swim
Anura can jump and swim
Anura can produce different sounds, and have ears to perceive them
They are mainly terrestrial but in wet places, some are aquatic.
When they are larvae they are usually aquatic.
Brain with several parts
Spinal cord to coordinate the movement
Eyes and nose very developed
Long digestive tube when they are larvae
Short digestive system with digestive glands when they are adults. Big mouth with a adhesive tongue
SKIN
Hard skin with scales.
Scales can grow continuously or being changed
Waterproof, don't lose water
Great protection
Sometimes is completely solid
Internal skeleton with powerful muscles
4 legs of the same size or 0 legs
They crawl, climb and jump
They can make short runs
They can swim if they are aquatic
Male and female
Internal fertilisation
They lay eggs with a hard shell, able to survive in dry places
Lungs, all of them
They are carnivores. They can eat preys larger than them
Some are herbivores
Closed circulatory system
Double circuit: lungs and body
Heart with 3 cameras (cocodrile 4)
Complete digestive system with powerful digestive glands
Powerful mouth with tooth
More complex brain with several specialised parts
Spinal cord to coordinate movements
Taste and sight very developed (Jacobson organs)
Bad ear
SKIN
Scales in the legs
Feathers in the body
Light weight
Make flight easier
Waterproof
Help to keep warm
Can be replaced easily
Closed circulatory system
Double circuit: lungs and body
Heart with 4 cameras
Lungs
Aerial sacs:
Allow breath flying
Make the bird lighter
Syrinx: to emit sounds
Lightweight skeleton
Light and hollow bones
2 strong front arms for flying (carinatae)
or
2 strong back legs for running (ratites)
They are male and female
Beautiful colors for courtship
Internal fertilisation
They lay and incubate hard eggs
They take care of the babies until they can fly
More developed brain (flight, feeding, taking care of babies, defend territory, distinguish friend from foe, migration...)
Good ear, excellent sight
Taste and smell poorly developed
Beak specialised in the type of food
Very efficient digestive system with 2 different stomachs
Liver and pancreas
Crop to storage food
All environments if flight is possible
From desert pole to forest
From oceans to mountains
All types of nutrition
Carnivores: Hunters, Fishers, Scavengers
Herbivores: Nectar, Seeds
Onmivores: everything they find
Carinate: fly
Ratite: run
They can communicate and establish social relationships
Almost worlwide. They can live in any place, wet or dry
Most of them are terrestrial, some are aquatic
They need hot or warm weather
There is no general design:
Turtles: compact body and scales fixed in a rigid carapace. 4 legs and short tail
Crocodiles: Longer body, 4 legs and large tail
Lizards: slim body, 4 legs and large tail
Snakes: slim body, no legs
Long and flexible neck
Carinate: Long and powerful arms for flying. Compact body
Ratite: Long and powerful legs for running. Big body
SKIN
Body covered by hair
Glands for sweat, milk, grease and odour
All types of locomotion: run, jump, climb, swim, fly, dig...
They can communicate and establish social relationships
Tooth specialized in the type of nutrition
Carnivores: predators, scavengers...
Herbivores
Onmivores
Male and female
There is courtship and competition for the female
Internal fertilisation
Viviparous: baby grows inside mother's womb
Newborn grows thanks to the milk produced by the mother
They can be found every corner of the world, adapted to every environment
General pattern of 4 legs:
Swim: front leg converted into fins, and a tail for impulse
Fly: front leg converted in wings
Run: 4 legs of the same size
Climb: 2 legs and 2 arms with hands
Complete digestive system with liver and pancreas
Adapted to nutrition:
Herbivores: long tube, little glands
Carnivores: short tubes, big glands
Omnivores: intermediate
Closed circulatory system
Double circuit: lungs and body
Heart with 4 cameras
Brain highly developed
Ears, eyes and touch are the main sense organs
Are self-conscious: can recognize in a miror
Internal skeleton: strong and heavy bones
Powerful muscles
All of them have Lungs
They have organs to produce sounds
Full transcript