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Copy of Copy of Amphibians

A comprehensive report about the development of Amphibians.
by

Maria João Dores

on 9 June 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Copy of Amphibians

AMPHIBIANS AMPHIBIANS Greek word: Amphi – “of both kinds”; bios – “life” - Amphibia/Amphibios – “living a double life”
Scientific Classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Superclass: Tetrapoda
Class: Amphibia
“First tetrapods” – four-legged vertebrates

EVOLUTION General Characteristics Three-chambered heart (2 atria and 1 ventricle)
Respiration: Lungs, skin or gills (separately or in combination)
Ectothermic (cold blooded)
Bone endoskeleton (vertebrae vary in numbers)
Thin, smooth, porous skin
Mouth: large w/ small teeth (upper or both jaws)
Two nostrils (anterior part of the mouth cavity)
Digestive system: relatively straight with a short intestine
Nervous system: Complex
Of course, can live both aquatic and terrestrial life

Three Main Orders Anura or Salientia

Frogs and toads
Urodela or Caudata

Salamanders and newts Gymnophiona

Caecilians
Approximately 5600 species of frogs
and toads (22-24 families)
Lack a tail
Shortened vertebral column
Hindlimb longer than forelimb
Absence of prefrontal bone
Presence of a urostyle (from developing tail
vertebrae)
Tadpole larval mouth parts: denticles and
keratinous beaks
Large subcutaneous lymph spaces between
the muscle layer and the skin
2 protractor lentis muscles joining the lens
Four-legged
Reproduction: external fertilization
Adapted for jumping
Approximately 571 species of salamanders
and newts
Tail is present
Four-legged (equal-sized limbs)
Absence of middle ear and otic notch
Presence of ribs
True teeth on both jaws are present
Presence of short stylus and large footplate
on the columella (in most taxa)
Salamaders: either completely aquatic or terrestrial
Newts: terrestrial (summer); aquatic (winter and spring)
Do not leap or jump, but walk or run instead



Approximately 175 species of legless
caecilians
Lack limbs
Long worm-like segmented bodies
Mostly found:
(Aquatic habitat or underground)
Tropical forest
Fresh water sediments
With short tails but no appendages
Possess powerful heads and ossified skulls
Have tiny scales and reduced eyes
Lifestyle: burrowing

Amphibians: used in studying vertebrate development Because…

They are vertebrates
They are tetrapods – possessing the fundamental features of terrestrial vertebrates
Can be studied easily using experimental techniques
Development is rapid (e.g. fertilization to neurulation – 18 hours)
They are large (even their eggs)
They undergo external development ( can be easily observed and manipulated)
Life Cycle and Behavior Breeding – seasonal (correlated with moisture and temperature optima)
Courting:
Frog – actions or sounds (attractants)
Salamanders – tactile and visual cues
Caecilians – not known
Fertilization
Frog – external fertilization
Salamander, Newts annd Caecilians – internal fertilization
Amphibian Reproductive Biology Protective behaviors In presence of danger: staying still, hiding,
camouflage
Frogs: warning calls(to alert other members)
Some frogs and salamanders:
Rock on their bellies, arch their back and stiffen (when disturbed)
Have flash color (warning coloration) to warn predators
Several amphibians have toxic skins
Others mimic those with toxic skins
Some species of salamanders break off their ail when attacked allowing them to escape as the predator pursues the twitching tail.
Development of Amphibians Frog Development Gametogenesis Fertilization Early Development of a Fertilized Egg (Comparison: Amphibian, Reptile and Mammal) Amphibian Development (Ontogenetic development up to basic body form) Frog Embryo’s Early Organogenesis Archenteron develops from endoderm
Neural plate forms from the folds of dorsal ectoderm
Neural plate pinches off – generating the neural tube (brain and spinal cord)
Mesoderm forms the notochord
Other mesodermal cells form the tissue lining of the coelom
Somites – give rise to segmental structures (e.g. vertebrae)
Hatching Maturity Xenopus Development (at 180°C) Stages of Frog Development Staging System for Salamanders References: http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=amphibian
http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-uhrlt1L3MQc/TfEf9na93RI/AAAAAAAAAwE/LAJ48Rog-E0/s1600/amphibian%252520squares.jpg
http://www.sheppardsoftware.com/content/animals/kidscorner/images/classification/all_amphibians.gif
http://dennis-holley.suite101.com/the-characteristics-of-amphibians-a148785
http://tolweb.org/Anura/16963
http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-Qt2zbcTGpkQ/TmrsKnnzlpI/AAAAAAAAADg/EAKDNm1HNMU/s1600/frogs_12-up.jpg
http://gun16.blogspot.com/2011_01_01_archive.html
http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_z1spY76ny-g/TS9n8PanslI/AAAAAAAAAA8/Kahp7uHMo-w/s1600/Untitled.png
http://ars.sciencedirect.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0955067402003800-gr1.jpg
http://www.cbu.edu/~aross/FrogLateGastrula.gif
http://php.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=2009_Group_Project_5
http://php.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/images/thumb/a/a5/Mature_frog_life_cyle.jpg/200px-Mature_frog_life_cyle.jpg
http://php.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/images/7/79/Frog_lifecycle.jpg
http://ncse.com/files/images/KvD_Padian_s039.jpg
http://www.gutenberg.org/files/37350/37350-h/images/fig5.png
http://www.genesisnet.info/bilder/bild_271_g_en
http://ridge.icu.ac.jp/biobk/stagesofdevel.jpg
http://bioethics.georgetown.edu/pcbe/reports/stemcell/appendix_a.html
http://www.virginiaherpetologicalsociety.com/amphibians/amphibian-development/frog%20development-Gosner-1.jpg
http://bioethics.georgetown.edu/pcbe/images/sc_images/frog_dev.gif
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/vertebrates/tetrapods/amphibintro.html
http://faculty.ncwc.edu/ddaley/B308.Amphib.develo.axis.htm
http://www.d.umn.edu/~pschoff/documents/EarlyDevelopmentandAxisFormationinAmphibians_002.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK10113/
http://people.ucalgary.ca/~browder/virtualembryo/amphib2.html
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/vertebrates/tetrapods/amphibsy.html
http://www.animalsworlds.com/classification-of-amphibians.html
http://worms.zoology.wisc.edu/frogs/amphy.html
http://worms.zoology.wisc.edu/frogs/amphy.html
http://lancastria.net/blog/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/frogs_lancastria.jpg
http://www.wildlife.state.nh.us/Wildlife/Nongame/salamanders/salamander_images/E-Newt8_young.jpg
http://www.clemetzoo.com/forfrogs/learn/images/Herpele_squalostoma2.jpg
http://www.wild-facts.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/401px-SpottedSalamander.jpg
http://tolweb.org/Caudata
http://www.theamphibian.co.uk/images/caresheets/Caecilians_Caresheet_thumbnail.jpg
http://cueflash.com/cardimages/answers/thumbnails/3/9/5493130.jpg
http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_93zdHuA8QhA/S2kP5tij2pI/AAAAAAAADnY/7j9BcNgMzYE/s400/tree-frog-amplexus_0556-lt.jpg
http://adarwinstudygroup.org/images/02-1902.jpg
http://listverse.files.wordpress.com/2012/02/frog_eggs.jpg?w=550&h=311
http://www.naturephoto-cz.com/photos/others/agile-frog-32000.jpg
http://imanshomeschool.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/froglet-2.jpg
http://rickpdx.files.wordpress.com/2008/04/tadpoles_sucking.jpg
http://www.honoluluzoo.org/herp_jour/pipa%20hatching%202.jpg






Created by: Michiko S. Takemori
Q4A
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