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Civil Rights Movement Project
Transcript of Civil Rights Movement Project
Civil Rights Leaders
During the Civil Rights Movement, many activists and advocates rose to fame as leaders of the movement, which exposed America to the social injustices taking place at the time. Some of these leaders are Thurgood Marshall, Rosa Parks, Martin Luther King Jr., and Malcolm X.
Key Civil Rights Victories
The Desegregation of the Military, Brown vs Board Of Education: Topeka, Civil Rights Act pf 1964, and Voting Rights Act of 1965 were all important victories in the fight for Civil Rights.
Long term effects of the Civil Rights Movement
Ruby Bridges was the first black child to attend an all white school in the south. She was born in Tylertown, Mississippi, but she moved to New Orleans, Louisiana when she was 4 years old. When she was 6 years old she began school at the William Frantz Elementary School in New Orleans. Ruby and her family had a lot of conflicts to help the civil rights movement by keeping Ruby in school. Eventually people protested less and Ruby successfully went to a white school. She was important to the desegregation of school because she inspired other colored families to allow their children to integrate into white school, and it showed some white families that it wasn't so bad having black children in their school, which caused protests to decrease. Many people don't know that when Ruby first arrived at the white school, she thought that the protests outside of the building were people celebrating Mardi Gras. Another thing most people probably don't know is that Ruby is still alive, is married, and has four children.
Tinker vs Des Moines School District
In 1965, five students living in Des Moines, Iowa wore black armbands to school to show that they oppose the Vietnam War and support the Christmas Truce. The principals in the Des Moines school district decided that they would ask students to remove their armbands, and if students refused they would be suspended. After Mary Beth Tinker, Christopher Eckhardt, and John Tinker were suspended, their parents decided to file a suit. They didn't file a suit until the Iowa Civil Liberties Union approached them. The case was brought to the Supreme Court, where it was argued before the court on November 12, 1968. The court ruled that the school was violating the students' First Amendment rights by not allowing them to wear the black armbands because the students wearing the armbands was not a disruption.
Miranda vs Arizona
By Sydney Zagar and Elizabeth Park
Thurgood Marshall, a civil rights activist, lawyer, judge and U.S. Supreme Court justice, argued more cases than anyone else in history, with a significantly high success rate. He is known for his victory in the Brown v. Board of Education, which ended the segregation of white and black schools, and for representing the NAACP as its full-time legal chief counsel. Thurgood used the strategy of using a calm and serious approach in his cases, and not being afraid to speak his mind. He is known for strongly supporting the Constitution and individual rights, as well as issuing strongly worded dissents.
Rosa Parks was a Civil Rights activist who became a national figure after her refusal to give up a seat on a bus to a white person. She had always believed in racial equality, but this simple action sparked the famous city-wide boycott, the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Rosa had a very quiet and reserved personality, but also stood up for herself. She is known for being brave and courageous for not giving up her seat to a white man. She took a quiet approach to fighting for what she believed was right and this strategy resulted in her arrest, the Montgomery Bus Boycott, the initiation of the Civil Rights Movement, and eventually the desegregation of schools in America.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr. was a Baptist minister and a social activist. He led the Montgomery Bus Boycott which led to the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. King also won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964, as the youngest ever to win it. He is known for his speech, "I Have a Dream" and for speaking out against injustices and inequality. He was outspoken, brave, and had great leadership before he was assassinated in 1968. As a powerful figure, he often made references to religious people and terms in his speeches, and his tactics and strategy were firmly rooted in a Christian form and based on Christian beliefs of nonviolent civil disobedience, which did cause controversial views. He spoke his mind and attempted to expose injustice in his demonstrations, and was arrested for one of his demonstrations in Birmingham, Alabama in 1956. Martin Luther King Jr. is noted as a great leader and hero in the Civil Rights Movement because he was able to lead the country to a different view with his ability to inspire, although he didn't have the ability to argue like other leaders did.
Malcolm X was an African American leader and a black nationalist leader. He was a charismatic and outspoken speaker and a naturally gifted and inspirational orator. He strongly believed in black superiority and spoke out against racial injustice. He was labeled as "a rebel" and originally did encourage violence for those fighting racism, but later spoke about human rights and was optimistic and less angry after returning from Saudi Arabia, changing his name to El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz, and converting back to Islam. Prior to his trip to Saudi Arabia, he had been in the Nation of Islam, renamed himself "Malcolm X" and was their spokesperson and raised great support there. However, he denounced the leader after shocking news about him and left as a result. His departure from the Nation of Islam made him a threat to them, and may have been a reason for his assassination in 1965. Malcolm X was definitely more intimidating than other leaders at the time because of his rebellious and aggressive manner, and strong personality.
Ruby Bridges being escorted to school by U.S. Marshals.
Desegregation of Military
Brown vs. Board of Education
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Voting Rights Act of 1965
On July 26th, 1968, President Truman issued an executive order to desegregate the U.S. Military. The executive order stated that people would be treated equally in the army or military regardless of their color, race, religion, or country of origin. The desegregation of the military was an important victory for the Civil Rights Movement because it allowed more of the African Americans who registered for the army to be drafted. Before the desegregation, a small percentage of black people who applied for the army were actually hired, even though the army was the nation's largest employer. It was a big step in the Civil Rights Movement because it got African Americans equal positions in the military as the whited. The Military was not fully integrated until the Korean War, because there were many casualties, so it was necessary to integrate.
The Brown vs Board of Education of Topeka in 1954 was a case on the basis that segregation in schools because of race is not equal, and the children can't get the same educational benefit in the separate facilities. The case was filed by the Brown family in response to Linda Brown not being accepted to the all-white school even though it was closer to their house than the colored school. Linda Brown's attorneys, including Thurgood Marshall, argued that "separate but equal" schools resulted in an unequal education, and low self esteem for the colored children. The court unanimously ruled that separate but equal schools aren't equal. He stated that separating children only because their race would affect their learning, and their hearts. The Brown vs Board of Education case was important because it started a time of change from the past segregation. The case inspired more cases to be brought to court to help the fight for desegregation in public schools.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was signed by President Johnson and it outlawed segregation based on color, race, religion, or country of origin in places such as schools, work places, and public accommodations. Initially, there was little effort made to enforce the act, but as years passed it was enforced more and more. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was important because it gave the people fighting for desegregation many things that it was fighting for. Blacks and whites could no longer legally be discriminated in schools, workplace, or public buildings. Although the act was not fully enforced until years after, it was a step in the right direction and it gave the people fighting for civil rights hope that they would be able to achieve their goals.
The Voting Rights Act of 1965 was signed by President Johnson, just like the Civil Rights Act. It was created to remove the barrier in some places that was preventing African Americans from using their right to vote, which was given in the Fifteenth Amendment of the Constitution. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 was important to the Civil Rights Movement because it reinforced the fact that African Americans have the right to vote for things that concern the U.S., just like the white people have that right. The act also made it illegal for a state government to make voting by African Americans against the law. The Voting Rights Act is one of the most effective desegregation laws because it gave African Americans their Fifteenth Amendment Right and allowing them to express their opinion on what should happen in U.S. government by being able to use their right to vote,
All four leaders fought for civil rights and against racial inequality and injustice, but with different methods and strategies. Parks was quiet but strong minded, and fought by performing simple actions that grabbed attention. M.L.K. Jr. took a religious take on his part, which did bring controversy to his speeches but ultimately didn't get in the way of his inspirational leadership. Marshall was the only leader in the Supreme Court and he fought racial injustice through successfully arguing in court in a serious manner and with his intellect. Malcolm X was undoubtedly the most animated and fervent leader out of the four because of his rebellious attitude and gifted orator trait. Together, these leaders contributed to many important steps taken by America at the time period and made America what it is today.
The Great Society
Long Term Effects for Women
Long Term Effects for Native Americans
Long Term Effects for the Disabled
Long Term Effects for LGBT Community
The Great Society is a series of programs created by President Johnson in order to try to eliminate poverty and racial discrimination. The Great Society Plan is very similar to the New Deal in the goals of the plan. Programs of the Great Society Deal included Medicare and Medicaid. Although these two programs seem very similar, they are actually very different. Medicare provides health insurance for people 65 and older or disabled people, no matter what their income is. Medicaid provides health insurance for people with a very low income.
The 1960s Civil Rights Movement left behind a mixed legacy pf triumph and tragedy. Blacks were no longer denied the right to vote, eat, or do anything where they pleased, and more importantly, attend desegregated schools. Also as a result of the movement, the progression towards social equality and desegregation increased, as racism still existed and many, of all races, were greatly affected in positive and negative ways. The Civil Rights Movement didn't just promote equality for African Americans because women, Native Americans, the disabled, and the LGBT Community were also affected greatly.
Women played key roles in the Civil Rights Movement, especially colored women who were facing racism and sexism. Also, during this movement, women began the Women's Movement, or Feminist Movement, which lasted from the 1960's to the 1970's. The 1960's decade is known as the "Decade of Change" for them because of the cultural changes that altered the role of women in American society. Feminist leaders said they were inspired by the Civil Rights Movement. Through this, they fought for their own civil rights as women and for equality in the workplace, but in general, for equality with men. Because of their fight for women's rights in the workplace at this time, they were able to gain more respect in the work force, more opportunities were given to them, and equal pay in some cases.
The Native American civil rights movement grew during the 1960's, as Native Americans were continuously being treated unfairly by the government, and facing discrimination. During this movement, they took the steps they deemed necessary to publicize the injustices and discrimination they were facing. The American Indian Movement (AIM) protested violently and were involved in many confrontations with the government. As a result of their fight for equality the Indian Civil Rights Act, which guaranteed civil rights and equal protection, was passed after the AIM led a spiritual walk. The long term effect that remains today because of the movement, is Native Americans are given better living conditions, increased employment options, and improved educational system.
The disability rights movement began in the 1960's, encouraged by the civil rights movement and the women's rights movement. During this movement, people with disabilities came together to fight for the equality in treatment, access, and opportunity they deserved. Throughout the 1800's and early 1900's, the disabled struggled to be recognized as equal in society, because they were considered to be pitiful and abnormal individuals who weren't able to contribute to society. The Rehabilitation Act of 1973 was passed, and included in it for the first time in history was protection by law for the civil rights of people with disabilities. Also, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act was passed in 1975 to guarantee equal access to public education for children with disabilities, and in 1990 the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) was passed and it provided equal access and treatment of the disabled to employment opportunities and public accommodations. Although it took many decades for the disabled to be recognized and though they are not respected by everyone yet, they have made great strides towards their goals. Today, people with disabilities are protected and given equal treatment, and may not be the case if it weren't for the disability rights movement.
Ernesto Miranda was arrested in 1963 because he was suspected for the kidnapping and raping of an eighteen year old girl. When he was brought in for questioning, he signed a confession which stated that he was aware of and understands his constitutional right to remain silent and to have an attorney, before the police interrogation. Miranda was not made aware of his rights. During Miranda's trial, the confession was used as evidence, but his attorney argued that it should be overturned because Miranda had not in fact been informed of his rights. Miranda was ruled guilty, and his attorney brought the evidence that should have been overturned to the Arizona Supreme Court. The court ruled that no confession could be used if it violated the fifth and sixth amendments, and Miranda's conviction was overturned. This ruling led to the Miranda rights, and the Miranda warning. This case also helped future people from not being informed of their rights before a police interrogation.
Inspired by the new social movements in the 1960's, LGBT activists decided to become more radical and by the end of the decade, the Gay Liberation movement began. This was the start of the fight for their rights, and throughout the 1900's, they fought for gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender rights. The LGBT was involved in many protests, lobbying, marches, and political activism. They fought for social equality because they believed they were equal in every way, and although some supported them, some opposed and still oppose today. Lesbians, gays, bisexuals and transgenders faced discrimination for centuries, but decided to take a stand finally in the 1960's. They still have people today who don't support them, but their struggle for social equality has definitely come a long way since the beginning of their battle. As a result of this movement, the LGBT community has gained recognition and more equal treatment, but not complete equality today because of different views on the whole concept itself.