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The Journey through advanced accounting information systems

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Jessica Arbella

on 24 April 2014

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Transcript of The Journey through advanced accounting information systems

As we mentioned, our understanding of BAI from Week 1 has evolved to Week 5
Especially learning how it ties to the COBIT framework
We were able to understand how GST was able to apply the BAI processes through their implementation of an information systems
COBIT Framework and BAI Processes
Week 5
Week 5 was a very important week
The ideas mentioned in Week 4 ties back to this week
COBIT Framework
We understood this relationship between COBIT, BAI, and collect, store, and use data also known as accounting systems
our journey through acg6437
Week 2
During Week 2, we learned about the relationships between accounting systems and technology
We also learned more in depth what Build, Acquire, and Implement entails
Four groups presented their case/article on this relationship
Week 7
Core Message
Week 4
During Week 4, we were introduced to COBIT and its processes
We also learned about implementation in accounting systems
More specifically on project management that is part of BAI
Three groups presented their article/case on this topic
Week 6
Week 1
Foundation
During Week 1, we were introduced to many different technology methods and concepts
Such technology methods included Prezi, ThinkMaps, and Accredible
We were asked what we thought business processes and accounting systems entailed
As class went on, we realized that our ideas were in the right direction
Without even realizing it, we have had experience with business processes and accounting systems
Jessica Arbella
and
Gennesis Sepulveda

Week 3
In Week 3, we learned about different technology methods such as Supply Chain Management and Customer Relationship Management
The impact that these technology has on information systems
We learned about the relationship between technology and Build, Acquire and Implement (BAI)
Three groups presented their case/article on this relationship
Prior Knowledge:
Business Processes vs. Accounting Systems
Consumers
Producers
Input
Output
Employees
Management
QuickBooks
Easy Acct
Peachtree
Numbers
Transactions
Journal Entries
After Class Disscussion Knowledge:
Business Processes vs. Accounting Systems
The Building Blocks
Revenue Cycle:
How sales order is processed
Acquisition Cycle:
How purchase order is placed
Conversion Cycle:
How resource is converted to cash flows
Data processed through business process is inputted into accounting system
Subsection of business process
Example with Retail Experience:
Customer purchases an item through the revenue cycle
Using a point-of-sale system, item no longer being in stock is transferred to an accounting system
QuickBooks then collects this data about inventory being sold
Saves and stores this data on hard drive or cloud
When needed, produces financial statements that can be used by management
We now understand how business processes and accounting systems are interrelated.
Relationship between
Accounting Systems and Technology
Build, Acquire, and Implement (BAI)
The following are some of the ideas that should be thought of in a BAI process:
Project Management
How do we deliver the project within budget and time
Requirement Analysis
What do users want and need
Implementation
Who should we acquire the software from
Testing
Conversion (taking data from old system into new system
Change Management
How do we manage organizational change
The relationship between accounting systems and technology includes:
Operational Databases
Concerned with collecting and storing data
Data Warehouses
Concerned with storing the data and long-term retention
Analytics
Concerned with using the data
Technology applications, infrastructure, and services includes:
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)
Cloud Computing
Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
Supply Chain Management (SCM)
Article: Presented by Group 6
Cloud Computing Definitions and Solutions
When the professor first mentioned Build, Acquire, and Implement, we had no idea what she was talking about and were kind of confused.
As class went on, we came to understand how BAI are part of the building blocks.
In order for a company to be effective and efficient in designing a project, a good BAI process should be in place.
During our presentation, we came to learn about the relationship bewteen accounting systems and techonology more specifically cloud computing
A good BAI, will result in a effective and efficient Cloud Computing system

Cloud computing uses servers on the internet to store, manage, and process data
Collect Data
Collects the data from an accounting system
You control the data your cloud collects
Store Data
Once the cloud collects the data from the accounting system, it then stores this data
You can buy the amount of storage space needed and it can be inexpensive
Use Data
You can access and use the data remotely from anywhere
Easy to download the data needed
Article: Presented by Group 3
Patton, S. and T. Wailgum. CRM Definition and Solutions
Technology Impact on Information Systems
Relationship with Build, Acquire, and Implement (BAI)
Prior Knowledge:
At first, we thought that Supply Chain Management (SCM) had no impact on information systems such as Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)
They were both two separate systems and processes

After Class Discussion Knowledge:
SCM can rely on the information on Excel spreadsheets
This information may not be as reliable such as distributing the incorrect products
This method will neither be an effective nor efficient way of gathering information
For SCM to work effectively a dependable information system such as ERP needs to be put in place
So SCM can rely on the information stored in ERP
That is why technology has impacted information systems

Most importantly
, a good BAI process needs to be put in place in order for this information system to be effective and provide the information that SCM needs.
Thank You
Thank you Professor Rama for a great semester

We now understand the importance of these Building Blocks.
As it was discussed in Week 2, a good BAI process will result in a better system.
Before implementing an information system such as ERP that communicates to SCM, management needs to understand the BAI process:
Requirement Analysis
What do the users want and need from this system
Project Management
How does management plan on delivering this system on time and within budget
Implementation
How to acquire and test this system
Change Management
Understanding that implementing this system will create an organizational change

Information learned during Week 2 can relate to the new information learned during Week 3
For example:
I frequently shop at Wal-Mart and usually they are able to maintain most of their products on hand at a low cost
This is because they have effectively implemented an information system that communicates to SCM
Requirement Analysis
Wal-Mart understands the needs of the users such as myself in wanting to have products available in time
With a BAI process in place
, Wal-Mart has a dependable information system that effectively and efficiently communicates to SCM.
During Week 3, Group 3 presented their article on CRM.
Although the specific steps within BAI were not explicitly stated, they reinforced the relationship between CRM and BAI.
CRM helps businesses use technology and HR to gain insight into the behavior of customers.
Requirement Analysis
Organization must understand their customers
To do that management needs to collect data about their customers
Collects data through
operational database
and uses data through
analytics
Project Management
Management must understand the time it will take to implement this CRM system
Hosted CRM - 30 to 90 days
Hosted Application/On-premise package - Months maybe years
Management also needs to understand the cost
Basic - $65 to $150 per month
Sophisticated - Several thousands to several millions of dollars
Implementation
CRM project should be broken up into manageable pieces
How does management plan on testing this system
Change Management
Lack of communication is one of the biggest reasons why CRM projects fail
The tone starts at the top.
Management needs to effectively commuciate this change with its staff
Case: Presented by Group 5
ROI for a Customer Relationship Management Initiative at GST
Case: Presented by Group 3
Clothes R’ Us case
COBIT and its Processes
This week we were introduced to COBIT and its processes
COBIT is the business framework for governance and management in enterprise IT
Governance and management are two different things
Governance is the umbrella
It sets the standards for management
Monitors that they are being followed
More oriented toward value realization
Compliance and performance
COBIT has 7 enablers
Principles, policies and frameworks
Processes
Organizational structures
Culture, ethics and behavior
Information
Services, infrastructure and applications
People, skills and competencies
As noted, one of the enablers includes processes that includes 5 categories
One of these processes ties back to our building blocks, that includes Build, Acquire, and Implement (BAI)
Implementation of Accounting System
Part of
Project Management
, which is part of the
BAI process
, is to properly manage these three constraints.
There are 5 phases that should occur within project management:
Initiating
Planning
Execution
Monitoring and Controlling
Closing
Once a project gets approved for initiation, it then goes into the planning phase
In this phase,
project management
discusses on these knowledge areas:
Human resources
Procurement
Risks
Scope
Cost
Time
Quality
There are three different types of approaches when wanting to implement a system
Traditional Approach
You know the goal and how you will get there
Adaptive Approach
You know the goal but unsure how you will get there
Extreme Approach
You are not clear about the goal and you are not sure how you will get there
We have learned in Weeks 1 through 3 about BAI and what it entails
But this week we learned that
BAI is part of the COBIT framework
When implementing a system, a project is limited by the triple constraint
Time
Scope
Cost
It is interesting to know that since BAI was introduced in Week 1, it has continued to be a main focus through Week 4 signifying its importance.
Even in managing IT programs such as the point-of-sale initiative in this case, BAI plays a big role in a successful implementation
Once the business case gets approved for
initiation
, management moves towards the
planning stage
in
project management
.
Human Resources: Clothers R' Us needed to outsoure to a consulting firm for certain roles/tasks
Needs to be aware as well as to the cost, risks, and time
Then the company moves to the
execution
stage within project management
Requirement Analysis
Understanding that by reducing the time managers spent at the back office will increase the time managers works the store thus improving customer satisfaction
Implementation
It was concluded that two months of testing was sufficient time
Then to
monitoring and controlling
Orlin needs to monitor the project and understand why it was four-weeks late

Something important that we learned during Week 4 as well, is that change management can occur before implementing the project and can continue through the project management stage.
First phase of the COBIT framework
BAI01 - to manage programmers and projects
Requirement Analysis
Second phase of the COBIT framework
BAI02- to manage requirements and definition
Project Management
Third phase of the COBIT framework
BAI03 - to manage solutions identification and build
Implementation
Fourth phase of the COBIT framework
BAI05 - to manage organizational change
Change Environment
We now understand how the analysis on BAI processes on the GST case regarding CRM and the affects it has on the ability to collect, store, and use this data relates to the COBIT framework
BAI01 - Requirement Analysis
Enterprise data warehouse integrated with enhanced CRM
Operational CRM
Collect data regarding their customers through various touch points
Store this data through the enterprise data warehousing
Analytical CRM
Greater knowledge of their customers by using this stored data
Sharing this data to adapt to the needs/demands of its customers
BAI02 - Project Management
Deliver project within budget, time and the risks
Understand that one-time costs add up to $5 million
Delay may occur if not providing Teradata necessary information on time
Understand the risks of entering incorrect information about clients
GST needs to find a way to collect and store accurate data
BAI03 - Implementation
Critical steps GST should note in implementing an effective CRM:
Analyzing customer profiles
Building predictive models
Developing a communication plan
Organize personalized offers in a timely manner
BAI05 - Change Management
Shift entire organization from product-centric focus to customer-centric focus
Will not be an easy task and will take time
Tone starts at the top
Management needs to agree with this CRM initiative
Then employees can see how it will benefit the company
Top Ten Technology Presentations
Group 6
Securing the IT Environment
How does Securing the IT Environment relate to the BAI processes in the COBIT framework?
BAI01: Project Management
In order to be successful in project management, the company needs to manage their budget effectively, while taking into consideration time, cost, and risk.
BAI02: Requirement Analysis
We understood that in order to secure the IT environment it is necessary to collect and secure information maintained on systems and/or devices.
BAI03: Implementation
The following are some procedures that management can put in place to ensure customer satisfaction and acceptance during implementation:
Training
Encryption
Back-ups
Access limitations
Monitoring
BAI04: Change Management
Tone of the top needs to be established with these procedures:
Establish security
Change passwords frequently
Understand customers' needs

As of Week 6, we believe that we had completely understood the concept of BAI processes in the COBIT framework and were able to accurately analyze BAI within different technologies.
Group 2
Leveraging Emerging Technologies
Business Processes and AIS
Throughout the seven weeks of this course, we have learned that business processes have three cycles, which are revenue cycle, acquisition cycle, and conversion cycle. A companies ERP will use all of these cycles to collect and store data into the system’s database where it can be retrieved and processed and then used to make business decisions. We also understand how IT governance can relate to BAI during the project management process with its relationship to budget and risk.
COBIT Framework and BAI
We have also learned that the COBIT framework has seven enablers which consist of four processes, one of them being BAI. BAI consists of project management, requirement analysis, implementation, and change management. We now understand that project management has to do with how a project is delivered while taking into consideration budget, timing, and risk. After completing project management, BAI moves on to requirement analysis which is when management will try to understand the needs of their customers. The third process of BAI is implementation, which focuses on the tone of the top. Also, if a company includes its staff in requirement analysis they will be more likely to accept the implementation and change management of a new system.
IT Governance and Emerging Technologies
During week 6, we learned that big data is a massive amount of structured and unstructured data that is too large to process with traditional database and software. Companies can use big data and analyze it to create useful information. However, big data could not be analyzed without good IT governance, which is what provides a standard for data quality, management, policies, and risk surrounding the data. The combination of IT governance and big data can be useful for a company to get to know their customers and to develop business strategies. In order to use the information obtained from big data, a company will have to successfully manage the BAI processes, most importantly the change management component of the COBIT framework.
How do Emerging Technologies relate to the BAI processes in the COBIT framework?
BAI01: Project Management
Emerging techonologies are able to organize data, such as "big data," with data governance in order to make data useful.
BAI02: Requirement Analysis
Big data can identify and assess risks that businesses are exposed to and customer activities that can be used to greatly improve CRM and client retention.
BAI03: Implementation
In order to implement an emerging technology, a company must have IT governance and data governance in place to provide standards for the handling of data.
BAI04: Change Management
Management will have to ensure that data is being understood in order to be used efficiently and effectively and to obtain the value of the data.
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