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Adrenal Glands

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Morgan Rowland

on 3 April 2013

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Transcript of Adrenal Glands

Adrenal Glands Outer Adrenal Cortex The inner part of the adrenal gland. The adrenal medulla produces (in response to stress) these hormones: epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) Inner Adrenal Medulla The outer tissue of the adrenal gland. It produces a group of chemically related hormones called corticosteroids that control mineral and water balance in the body and include aldosterone,cortisol, glucocortioids, and gonadocorticoids. Aldosterone When it gets too low, which can be common in some patients with cortisol deficiency, your kidneys will excrete too much salt, and it leads to low blood pressure; low blood volume; a high pulse, dizziness and or light-headedness when you stand; fatigue; and a craving for salt. Symptoms of low aldosterone can also include frequent urination, sweating, a slightly higher body temperature, and a feeling of thirst, besides the craving of salt. Potassium can at first rise too high, then fall, as well. Continued... A pair of triangular shaped glands each about 2 in. long and 1 in. wide. They sit on top of the kidneys where they are enclosed in a fibrous capsule and a cushion of fat. These glands are responsible for the release of hormones that regulate metabolism, immune system function, and the saltwater balance in the bloodstream; they also aid in the body's response to stress. Each gland is structurally and functionally two endocrine glands in one:
1. the inner adrenal medulla
2. the outer adrenal cortex Epinephrine Norepinephrine Also called adrenaline Also called noradrenaline Constricts almost all blood vessels Norepinephrine is formed in the body from the amino acid tyrosine, and epinephrine is in turn formed from norepinephrine. Aldosterone is a steroid hormone produced by the outer section of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland. It helps regulate levels of sodium and potassium in your body, retain needed salt, which in turn helps control your blood pressure, the distribution of fluids in the body, and the balance of electrolytes in your blood. Aldosterone also helps remove excess potassium, keeping those levels balanced. When aldosterone gets too high (as it can under stress and as your cortisol goes too high), your blood pressure also gets too high and your potassium levels become too low. You can have muscle cramps, muscle weakness, and numbness or tingling in your extremities. Gonadocorticoids This is secreted by both middle and inner layers of the adrenal cortex. Androgens (Male hormones) and estrogens (female hormones) are secreted in minimal amounts by the adrenal cortex. Their secretion is believed to be stimulated by corticotropin of the anterior pituitary. They include steroids, which stimulate the development of external sexual characters or secondary sexual characters. They contain small amounts of both male and female sex hormones. However, more male sex hormone is produced than female sex hormones. The male sex hormone stimulates the development of male secondary sexual characters such as distribution of body hair, deepening of voice. Female sex hormone stimulates the appearance of female secondary sexual characters such as enlargement of breasts etc. If a woman has too much of this it can cause excessive facial hair to grow. This can be tamed by birth control pills. Works Cited At times when a person is highly stimulated, as by fear, anger, or some challenging situation, extra amounts of epinephrine are released into the bloodstream, preparing the body for energetic action Epinephrine is a powerful vasopressor that increases blood pressure and increases the heart rate and cardiac output. It also increases glycogenolysis and the release of glucose from the liver, so that a person has a suddenly increased feeling of muscular strength and aggressiveness. Some disorders of the adrenal glands, such as addison's disease, reduce the output of epinephrine below normal. As sometimes seen in highly emotional persons this tends to produce tenseness, palpitation, high blood pressure, diarrhea, and overaggressiveness. Certain adrenal tumors also result in the production of too much epinephrine. Removal of the tumor relieves symptoms. As a stress hormone, norepinephrine affects parts of the brain and increases the brains oxygen supply One of the most important functions of norepinephrine is its role as the neurotransmitter released from the sympathetic neurons affecting the heart Norepinephrine can directly increase heart rate, triggering the release of glucose from energy stores, and increases blood flow to skeletal muscle Glucocortioids Cortisol regulates the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. Specifically, it increases the catabolism or breakdown of protein in bone, skin, muscle, and connective tissue. It's the most important human glucocortioid. The name glucocorticoid derives from its role in the regulation of the metabolism of glucose, its synthesis in the adrenal cortex, and its steroidal structure. The group includes cortisol, cortisone, and corticosterone. Corticosterone protects against stress, influences muscular efficiency, and influences carbohydrate and electrolyte metabolism. Cortisone is a steroid that's largely inactive in humans until it is converted to cortisol. It's produced in response to stress and also acts as a anti- inflammatory Treatment involves replacing the absent hormones. Lifelong, continuous steroid replacement therapy is required, with regular follow-up treatment and monitoring for other health problems. Addison’s disease is a rare, chronic endocrine disorder in which the adrenal glands do not produce sufficient steroid hormones (cortisol)- It's pretty much damage by the body's own immune system Cushing's syndrome describes the signs and symptoms associated with prolonged exposure to inappropriately high levels of the hormone cortisol. Symptoms include rapid weight gain, particularly of the trunk and face with sparing of the limbs (central obesity). A common sign is the growth of fat pads along the collar bone and on the back of the neck and a round face often referred to as a "moon face." treatment may include surgery, radiation, or medication to lower cortisol levels http://www.uptodate.com/contents/cushings-syndrome-treatment-beyond-the-basics http://www.news-medical.net/health/What-Does-the-Adrenal-Gland-Do.aspx http://www.udel.edu/chem/C465/senior/fall00/Performance1/epinephrine.htm.html http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/aldosterone http://kidshealth.org/parent/general/body_basics/endocrine.html Affects
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