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Using Close Reading to attain Common Core Rigor
Transcript of Using Close Reading to attain Common Core Rigor
Close reading is an instructional practice that makes complex texts accessible using repeated reading, cognitive scaffolding, and discussion.
The purpose of close reading:
to build the habits of readers as they engage with complex texts
to build their stamina and skills so they can do so independently
How is it done...
Close Reading and the CCSS with Dr. Douglas Fisher - Part 2
Close Reading and the CCSS
with Dr. Douglas Fisher
Read a short passage.
Read with a pencil
Ask text dependent questions to analyze;
what the text says
how the text says it
what the text means
what the text means to them
Explain in writing
Using Close Reading to attain Common Core Rigor
What is it?
Why do we need to do it?
How do we teach it?
In an Expert's Words
And he goes on to say...
Okay, we know what Close Reading is. We know why it is needed--Now, how do we teach it?
Because close reading is so time-consuming,
select short, worthy passages
The Common Core Standards Suggest:
Literature Informational Text
Short stories Short articles
Poetry Personal narratives
Scenes from plays Speeches
Myths Historical documents
Imagery including comparisons:
CRAFT TECHNIQUES AND RELATED QUESTIONS FOR CLOSE READING
What is being compared?
Why is the comparison effective? (typically because of the clear, strong, or unusual connection between the two)
What symbols are present? Why did the author choose these symbols?
What word(s) stand out? Why? (typically vivid words, unusual choices, or a contrast to what a reader expects)
How do particular words get us to look at characters or events in a particular way?
Do they evoke an emotion?
Did the author use nonstandard English or words in another language? Why? What is the effect?
Are there any words that could have more than one meaning? Why might the author have played with language in this way?
Tone and Voice
What one word describes the tone?
Is the voice formal or informal? If it seems informal, how did the author make it that way? If it's formal, what makes it formal?
Does the voice seem appropriate for the content?
Sentences in which word order is important
What stands out about the way this sentence is written?
Why did the author choose a short sentence here? (for example, so it stands out from sentences around it, for emphasis)
Why did the author make this sentence really long? (for example, to convey the "on and on" sense of the experience.)
Why did the author write a fragment here? (for example, for emphasis or to show a character's thoughts)
Based on the order of the words in this sentence, which word do you think is the most important? Why? What was the author trying to show by placing a particular word in a certain place?
And then what?
IT'S ABOUT TRANSFER!
TEACH STUDENTS TO ASK THE QUESTIONS
Four basic questions students can ask themselves as they reflect on a text:
What is the author
Are there any hard or important
What does the author want me to
How does the author play with
to add to meaning?
"The teaching of reading veered off track when personal connections began to dominate the teaching and testing of comprehension...often leaving the text itself a distant memory."
Coordinator, Graduate Reading Program
Southern Connecticut State University
Students do this = less need for you to do all the asking!
Ask Students to read with a pencil
Annotate the text
Highlight or underline key words or phrases they find surprising, confusing, significant or that raise questions.
Underline with a PURPOSE!
Make notes in the margins.
Look for patterns, repetitions, contradictions or similarities in the text.
What do they do with it? They:
Here is an example of craft techniques to introduce to students to encourage close reading---along with questions to help them explore how an author uses each craft in a text.
Have students noticed the details in the passage and can they recount those details in their own words accurately, precisely and clearly?
Paraphrasing is the first stop along the journey to close reading.
Hard or important words help students to zoom in on precise meaning.
Once students have a basic grasp of what the author is telling them--they are ready to move on to analyzing the content.
If students begin their analysis with this question, they will be ready to make inferences--determining what the author is trying to show without directly stating it.
How a text is written is as important as the content itself in getting the author's message across.
Introduce students to some of the tricks authors use to do this.
So, in conclusion.....
Challenging texts need to be read & reread
Each reading should accomplish a separate purpose
1st Reading: Should allow the reader to determine WHAT A TEXT SAYS
2nd Reading: Should allow the reader to determine HOW A TEXT WORKS
3rd Reading: Should allow the reader to evaluate the QUALITY AND VALUE OF THE TEXT (and to connect the text to other texts)
All focus is on text meaning
Background prep/explanation is minimized
Students must do the reading/interpretation
Teacher's major role is to ask text dependent questions
There is a multi-day commitment to texts
Students reread with a PURPOSE
Short reads work best
What the text says
How does the text work
What does the text mean
4th Grade Close Read
Sunday Cummins Models