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THE FRENCH REVOLUTION

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Daniel Torres

on 7 November 2014

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Transcript of THE FRENCH REVOLUTION

THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
REVOLUTION THREATENS THE MONARCHY
VOCABULARY
- OLD REGIME:
The feudal system left over from the Middle Ages. It was organized in terms of three "estates" or groups.
CLERGY
MERCHANTS,
PEASANTS, FARMERS... THE PEOPLE.
NOBLES
- OLD REGIME AND THE BURDEN OF LABOUR AND TAXES -
KING LOUIS THE XVI...
THE OLD REGIME
- THE THREE ESTATES -
1. THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH
The clergy who had power based on the medieval idea that God gives more power to some, rather than to all members of a society or the world.
2. THE NOBLES.
The nobility who had power because they had owned the land since the Middle Ages based on medieval ideas that supported the power of some over others based on religion and blood relationships
.
3. THE PEOPLE.
The Bourgeoisie or wealthy merchants and artisans. People who had great welath based on their efforts and ingenuity but who had no political power thanks to the medieval idea that those things (political powers) are only given to some by god.
City workers like cooks and servants who depended on other people giving them work in order to survive.
The rest of the people (peasants) who dedicated to agriculture. They paid more than half their income in taxes to the First and Second States.
It provided education and economic and spiritual relief to the poor in urban and rural areas. They hated Enlightenment ideas.
They owned most of the land and paid virtually no taxes. They hated Enlightenment Ideas.
They paid most taxesm resented the clergy and the nobles and embraced Enlightenment ideas.
1
2
3
- KING LOUIS XVI WAS A WEAK RULER WHO OFTEN RELIED ON OTHERS TO MAKE RADICAL DECISIONS IN CRUCIAL TIMES.

- FRANCE WAS GOING THROUGH MANY CRISIS RELATED TO FINANCIL DEFICIT (NO MONEY), LACK OF FOOD BECAUSE OF BAD HARVESTS, AND RESENTMENT FROM THE THIRD ESTATE.

- THE KING TRIED TO INCREASE TAXES TO SUPPORT THE GREAT COSTS OF WAR AND THE CRISIS THE NATION WAS UNDERGOING.
-THIS RAISE IN TAXES ANGERED THE ARISTOCRACY (THE MOST POWERFUL GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS)

- THE SECOND ESTATE FORCED THE ABSOLUTE KING TO GATHER THE THREE ESTATES IN ORDER TO DECIDE WHAT TO DO WITH THE CURRENT CRISIS.

- THIS REUNION OF THE THREE ESTATES WAS CALLED THE
"ESTATES-GENERAL"

AN ASSEMBLY OF REPRESENTATIVES OF THE THREE ESTATES.
THE ESTATES-GENERAL WAS A FIASCO.
- MEMBERS OF THE FIRST AND SECOND ESTATES HOPED TO REMAIN IN POWER AS THEY HAD ALWAYS DONE IN THE PAST BASED ON THEIR MEDIEVAL IDEAS.

- BUT THE THIRD ESTATE WAS NOW WELL EDUCATED AND THE WEAlTHY MERCHANTS AND ARTISANS, THE BOURGEOISIE, HAD NEW IDEAS: ENLIGHTENMENT IDEAS.
made some mistakes...
1789 - 1799
WHAT HAPPENED?
- THE THIRD ESTATE WAS LOCKED OUT OF THE ROOM WHERE THE GATHERING TOOK PLACE SO THEY WOULD NOT CAST A VOTE.

- ANGERED THE REPRESENTATIVES OF THE THIRD ESTATE ASSEMBLED IN A TENIS COURT AND REACHING AN AGREEMENT THEY CREATED WHAT WAS KNOWN AS THE
"NATIONAL ASSEMBLY"
WHICH AGREED...
"not to separate... until the constitution of the kingdom is established"
REVOLUTION!
MEDIEVAL
HIERARCHY
NEW IDEAL
HIERARCHY
TRYING TO APEACE THE THIRD ESTATE AND ITS
NATIONAL ASSEMBLY
, THE KING AGREED WITH THE REFORMS OF THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY. HOWEVER, AT THE SAME TIME
HE PUT

HIS SWISS GUARDS
IN CASE OF TROUBLE.
THE PEOPLE THOUGHT THE KING MEANT TO ATTACK THEM. IN RESPONSE THEY STORMED (ATTACKED) THE BASTILLE IN ORDER TO GET GUNPOWDER TO FIGHT BACK.
14 OF JULY 1789
SOON, MASSIVE REBELLIONS SPREAD THROUGH RURAL AND URBAN FRANCE. THE ROYAL FAMILY HAD TO LEAVE THEIR PALACE AT VERSAILLES. THE KING RAN AWAY.
THE
"GREAT FEAR"
SPREAD THROUGH FRANCE. NOBLES AND PEASANTS ALIKE SAW A MASSIVE WAVE OF VIOLENCE RISE IN THEIR COUNTRY.
- NOBLE MEN AND CLERGY MEN JOINED THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY (MORE OUT OF FEAR THAN IDEALISM) AND SPOKE OF
LIBERTY AND EQUALITY.

- A NEW GOVERNMENT WAS CREATED BY THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY BASED ON THE VERY FAMOUS "DECLARATION OF THE RIGHTS OF MAN".
WHAT CONSEQUENCES DERIVED FROM THESE EVENTS?
THE CREATION OF A NEW GOVERNMENT BROUGHT CHANGES TO FRANCE AND EUROPE:
- IN ORDER TO KEEP ORDER AND MAINTAIN REVOLUTIONARY IDEALS THE NEW GOVERNMENT, THE
NATIONAL CONVENTION
, BROUGHT UPON A TIME KNOWN AS
"THE REGIME OF TERROR"
.
- IT WAS A TIME OF MASSIVE EXECUTIONS AGAINST THE CLERGY, THE NOBLES AND MOST IMPORTANTLY AND CONTRADICTORY, THE PEOPLE.
- THE EXECUTIONS WERE CARRIED OUT IN FAVOUR OF MAINTAINING THE REVOLUTIONARY IDEALS PROPOSED AFTER THE DEFEAT OF THE MONARCHY. FRANCE WAS NOW BEING LEAD BY A MAN KNOWN AS
MAXIMILIEN ROBESPIERRE
.
- THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY HAD SO MUCH POWER THE KING WAS VIRTUALLY A SYMBOL, NOTHING MORE. THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY PASSED LAWS AND COULD PREVENT THE KING FROM ENTERING ANY WAR.
- IN FEAR, THE KING TRIED TO ESCAPE TO AUSTRIA WHERE HE WOULD ORGANIZE AN ARMY AND TAKE BACK HIS COUNTRY.
- THE KING WAS DISCOVERED AND PUT IN HOUSE ARREST (CASA POR CARCEL).
- AUSTRIA AND PRUSSIA WANTED THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY TO PUT KING LOUIS XVI BACK IN THE THRONE AND SO FRANCE DECLARED WAR ON AUSTRIA. PRUSSIA JOINED AUSTRIA LATER AGAINST FRANCE.
-
AFTER THE "GREAT FEAR" AND THE DEAD OF THE KING THE NEW GOVERNMENT SOUGHT ORDER THROUGH WHATEVER MEANS POSSIBLE.
HORRIFIED THAT THIS WOULD ALSO HAPPEN TO THEM, THE NATIONS OF EUROPE TRIED TO HELP THE MONARCHY OF FRANCE REGAIN ITS POWER.
- THE NATIONS OF EUROPE WERE TRIYNG TO HELP KING LOUIS XVI REGAIN ABSOLUTE POWER. - THEY ALSO WANTED TO DESTROY THE REBELS WHO LEAD THE REVOLUTION.
- THEY TRIED TO CONTROL THE REVOLUTION GIVEN THAT THESE NEW REVOLUTIONARY IDEAS MAY SPREAD UNTO THEIR OWN ABSOLUTE MONARCHIES.
- FRANCE ENTERED A WAR AGAINST MANY OTHER EUROPEAN STATES: ESPECIALLY AUSTRIA AND PRUSSIA. THE STATE WAS IN CRISIS!
AFTER THE REVOLUTION FRANCE WAS UNDERGOING A SERIES OF UNSUSTAINABLE AND HORRIBLE CHALLENGES + THE FACT THAT NOW THERE WAS NO EFFECTIVE GOVERNMENT OR ORGANISATION.
- ALL THE PROBLEMS THAT STARTED THE REVOLUTION WERE STILL THERE: FAMINE, LACK OF MONEY, HIGH TAXES.
- NEW PROBLEMS HAD BEEN CREATED: GENERAL RIOTS, FEAR OF THE EXTREMISTS, THE DEATH OF THE KING (WHICH HORRIFIED MANY), THE LOSS OF POWER BY THE CLERGY (WHICH ALSO HORRIFIED MANY), AND WAR AGAINST EUROPEAN COUNTRIES.
AFTER SOME TIME ONE GENERAL OF THE ARMY OF FRANCE WAS ELECTED AS CONSUL (IN THE ROMAN STYLE OF GOVERNMENT): NAPOLEON BONAPARTE.
- THE DIRECTORY SOON LOST THE FAITH OF THE PEOPLE THANKS TO THE DESIRE FOR FURTHER PROSPERITY.
- THE ONLY THING THAT KEPT THE DIRECTORY IN CONTROL OF THE NATION WAS THEIR CONTROL OF THE ARMY.
-THE DIRECTORY DECIDED TO PUT NAPOLEON, A VERY PROSPEROUS GENERAL, IN CHARGE OF THE ARMY.
-THE NEXT DAY NAPOLEON TOOK CONTROL OF THE GOVERNMENT BY MARCHING HIS ARMY INTO THE GOVERNMENT'S LEGISLATURE ASSEMBLY.
- THIS SUDDEN TAKE OF POLITICAL POWER IS KNOWN AS A
COUP D' ETAT
(GOLPE DE ESTADO).
THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY CREATES A
CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY!
FOR TWO YEARS THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY ARGUED OVER A NEW CONSTITUTION. BY 1791 THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY HAD MADE MANY RADICAL CHANGES TO FRANCE'S GOVERNMENT AND SOCIETY.
1. A STATE-CONTROLLED CHURCH:
Although this offended many peasants who strongly believed in the church, the NATIONAL ASSEMBLY took control of church lands and made the clergy servants of the state by paying them wages.
The NATIONAL ASSEMBLY did this in order to sell the lands of the church to pay for the great debt of the state.
2. A LIMITED MONARCHY:
The NATIONAL ASSEMBLY created a limited constitutional monarchy.
The king and his ministers would still hold executive power to enforce laws, but the ASSEMBLY would be the lawmakers.
3. THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY AND THE KING:
The NATIONAL ASSEMBLY handed over its power to the king and changed its name to the
"LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY"
.
THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY
AND THE RISE OF POLITICAL FACTIONS
- ESTATES GENERAL:
The assembly of the "Three Estates" that gathered whenever the king wanted to make decisions about the nation's course of action. In this case the raise of taxes.
- POLITICAL FACTION:
A political faction is a group of individuals, such as a political party, a trade union, or other group with a common political purpose. Members of factions band together as a way of achieving goals and advancing their agenda and position within an organization.
SINCE OLD PROBLEMS PERSISTED, REVOLUTIONARY LEADERS TURNED AGAINST EACH OTHER IN ORDER TO FIND A SOLUTION TO PROBLEMS.
RADICALS
SAT ON THE LEFT SIDE OF THE HALL; WERE CALLED "LEFT WING" AND SAID TO BE ON THE LEFT.
OPPOSED THE KING AND THE IDEA OF A MONARCHY.
WANTED RADICAL CHANGES IN GOVERNMENT AND PROPOSED THAT COMMON PEOPLE HAVE FULL CONTROL OF THE REPUBLIC.
MODERATES
SAT IN THE CENTRE OF THE HALL AND WERE CALLED CENTRISTS.
WANTED SOME CHANGES IN GOVERNMENT, BUT NOT AS MANY AS THE RADICALS.
CONSERVATIVES
SAT ON THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE HALL: WERE CALLED RIGHT WING AND SAID TO BE N THE RIGHT.
UPHELD THE IDEA OF A LIMITED MONARCHY.
WANTED FEW CHANGES IN GOVERNMENT.
FIRST GOVERNMENT
AN ABSOLUTE MONARCHY
SECOND GOVERNMENT
CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY KNOWN AS THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY
THIRD GOVERNMENT
A REPUBLIC KNOWN AS THE NATIONAL CONVENTION
THE NATIONAL CONVENTION EXECUTES ROBESPIERRE AND CREATES
"THE DIRECTORY"
- THE DIRECTORY WERE A GROUP OF FIVE DIRECTORS THAT RULED OVER THE NATIONAL CONVENTION AFTER THE DEATH OF ROBESPIERRE.
- ALTHOUGH VERY CORRUPT, THEY BROUGHT ORDER AND STABILITY TO FRANCE AFTER YEARS OF CHAOS.
Tinted etching of Louis XVI of France, 1792, wearing a Phrygian cap. This caption refers to Louis's capitulation to the National Assembly, and concludes "The same Louis XVI who bravely waits until his fellow citizens return to their hearths (homes) to plan a secret war and exact his revenge."
NAPOLEON BECOMES RULER FRANCE
AT FIRST NAPOLEON PRETENDED TO BE A CONSUL ELECTED BY A
PLEBISCITE
(A VOTE FROM THE PEOPLE). THIS MEANT FRANCE WAS STILL A REPUBLIC.
BECAUSE THE PEOPLE WERE DESPERATE FOR ORDER THEY DESIRED STRONG LEADERSHIP.
REVOLUTION THREATENS THE FRENCH KING
OLD REGIME
ESTATE
LOUIS XVI
MARIE ANTONIETTE
ESTATES-GENERAL
NATIONAL ASSEMBLY
TENNIS COURT OATH
GREAT FEAR
DECLARATION OF RIGHTS OF MEN
LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY
MAXIMILLIEN ROBESPIERRE
COMMITTEE OF PUBLIC SAFETY
REIGN OF TERROR
Robespierre shown executing the executioner after having executed everyone else in France.
"Is it not He whose immortal hand, engraving on the heart of man the code of justice and equality, has written there the death sentence of tyrants? Is it not He who, from the beginning of time, decreed for all the ages and for all peoples liberty, good faith, and justice? He did not create kings to devour the human race. He did not create priests to harness us, like vile animals, to the chariots of kings and to give to the world examples of baseness, pride, perfidy, avarice, debauchery and falsehood. He created the universe to proclaim His power. He created men to help each other, to love each other mutually, and to attain to happiness by the way of virtue."

Robespierre, M. "The Cult of the Supreme Being," in Modern History Sourcebook, 1997
-The Old Regime was a system based on the medieval organisation of the people of France in 3 groups called Estates.
- There were three social classes in France in the Old Regime. These three classes were called Estates. Each Estate had a series of responsibilities and duties to the kingdom.
- The King of France since 1774 to his death on 1793 when he was beheaded. He was a weak King who ignored the problems of his kingdom until it was too late. He wanted more taxes and imposed them on an already suffering population.
- The wife of Louis VXI. She was from Austria. This made people dislike her. But it was the fact that she spent so much money what made people detest her.
- An assembly of the Representatives of the Three Estates that gathered to make decisions. This form of assembly had existed in France since the 14th century. It had been created by the king during a dispute with the Pope in which he neede the support of the Nobles and the People.
- The National Assembly was made by the Representatives of the Third Estate when they were locked out of the Estates-General. It was created to pass laws and reforms in the name of the people and, most importantly to create a Constitution that controlled the king and gave rights to the people. At first yhey wanted to make France from an absolute Monarchy to a Constitutional Monarchy.
- The promise of the Representatives of the Third Estate, the National Assembly, to create a constitution that protected the rights of the people.
- King Louis XVI, afraid of the power of the National Assembly, agreed to the creation of a Constitution. He ordered the First and Second Estates to join the National Assembly to write down the Constitution. At the same, because he distrusted the French people and the french army, he ordered his "Swiss guards" to protect him. The people thought he was assembling an army against them and stormed (attacked) the Bastille to get gunpoweder and fight the king's new army.
STORMING THE BASTILLE
- After the storming of the Bastille rumors spread to the countryside about the revolution. People believed that nobles were organizing armies to terrorize the people and a senseless wave of fear spread through the kingdom. People were angered at the unfairness of the nobility and the king.
NAPOLEON
FORGES AN EMPIRE

REVOLUTION BRINGS
REFORM AND TERROR

STUDY SESSIONS:
- READ CHAPTER 23, LESSON 1, PAGES 573 TO 576.
- STUDY THE MAIN IDEA
- STUDY THE TERMS AND NAMES (FOUND HERE ASWELL)
-READ THE RED TITLES FOR THE MAIN IDEAS.
- READ GREEN TITLES FOR CAUSES AND EFFECTS THAT EXPLAIN THE MAIN IDEA.
- READ CHAPTER 23, LESSON 2.
PAGES, 577 TO 583.
- STUDY THE MAIN IDEA
- STUDY THE TERMS AND NAMES (FOUND HERE ASWELL)
-READ THE RED TITLES FOR THE MAIN IDEAS.
- READ GREEN TITLES FOR CAUSES AND EFFECTS THAT EXPLAIN THE MAIN IDEA.
STUDY SESSIONS:
SUMMARY OF THE REVOLUTIONARY BOAT:
So... everything you need to know summarized.

1: France was one of the most advanced and developed nations in Europe with a population of almost 31 million.
2: Inequality in France had reached staggering heights.
3: France was still organized in its Feudal system which had broken down society into three: the clergy, the nobles and the people. This was known as the Old Regime.
4: France was undergoing financial crisis, bad harvests, lack of food, and poverty.
5: In order to pay for wars and debts the King raised taxes.
6: This angered the second and third estates (the nobles and the people)
7: The Estates-General was convened to decide on the reforms to taxation.
8: Inequality lead to the Third Estate rioting and creating a new government branch in charge of creating a constitution that protect the rights of the people. This branch of government was called the National Assembly.
9: The king agreed to the National Assembly's demands, but, since he could not trust his own people anymore, he brought soldiers from Switzerland.
10: The people thought nobles were organizing an attack against them and they rebelled.
11. A great wave of fear spread through the country as people started to speak of the revolution.
Rousseau
Spoke of equality.
Voltaire
Spoke against oppression
and in favour of freedom.
THIS ANGERED THE PEOPLE!
FOURTH GOVERNMENT
THE CONSULATE RULED BY NAPOLEON AS FIRST CONSUL
- BECAUSE OF WAR AND THE FACT THAT THEIR OWN KING WAS TRYING TO DESTROY THEM, THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY ABANDONED THE IDEA OF A LIMITED MONARCHY. THE POLITICAL FACTIONS BECAME MORE AND MORE EXTREME.
- EVENTUALLY THEY DEPOSED THE KING AND CALLED FOR A NEW LEGISLATURE (BODY OF LAWS).
- THEY CREATED A REPUBLIC RULED BY RADICAL GROUPS OF PEOPLE FROM THE NOW DESTROYED THIRD ESTATE. THE NEW GOVERNMENT WAS KNOWN AS THE
"NATIONAL CONVENTION"
.

- IN THE END AN EXTREMIST GROUP THAT WANTED A REPUBLIC INSTEAD OF A CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY, "THE JACOBINS" TOOK CONTROL OF THE NATIONA CONVENTION, SENTENCED AND EXECUTED KING LOUIS THE XVI AS IF HE WAS A COMMON MAN.
CRISIS LEADS TO ANOTHER CHANGE
TIMELINE
1789
MAY 5 -
BECAUSE OF THE FINANCIAL CRISIS THE SECOND ESTATE FORCE THE KING TO ASSEMBLE THE ESTATES-GENERAL.
JUNE 17 -
THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY WAS CREATED.
JUNE 20 -
THE TENNIS COURT OATH IS TAKEN. THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY PROMISES TO WRITE A CONSTITUTION THAT DEFENDS THE RIGHTS OF MEN.
JULE 14 -
STORMING THE BASTILLE. THIS IS THE OFFICIAL START OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. PEOPLE ARMED THEMSELVES AND TOOK CONTROL OF THE CITY OF PARIS.
AUGUST 4 -
THE FEUDAL SYSTEM IS ABOLISHED. THE OLD REGIME IS DEAD.
AUGUST 26 -
THE DECLARATION OF THE RIGHTS OF MAN AN THE CITIZEN IS WRITTEN AND APPROVED. THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY CHANGES ITS NAME TO THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
1791
JUNE 20 - 21 -
THE KING ESCAPES. King Louis XVI of France, his wife Marie Antoinette, and their immediate family attempted unsuccessfully to escape from Paris in order to initiate a counter-revolution.
The king hoped to start a military campaign which would restore his rule.
They were only able to make it as far as the small town of Varennes.

The incident was a turning point after which popular hostility towards the French monarchy as an institution, as well as towards the king and queen as individuals, became much more pronounced.
The king's attempted flight provoked the charges of treason which ultimately led to his execution in 1793.
AUGUST 27 -
EUROPEAN FEEL THREATENED BY THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND ORGANIZE THEMSELVES AGAINST THE REVOLUTION AN DIN FAVOUR OF KING LOUIS XVI.
1792
APRIL 20 -
FRANCE DECLARES WAR ON AUSTRIA. PRUSSIA DECLARES WAR ON FRANCE ON JUNE 13.
SEPTEMBER 2 - 6 -
SEPTEMBER MASSACRES.
SEPTEMBER 20 -
THE NATIONAL CONVENTION IS CREATED. BECAUSE OF THE MASSIVE CHAOS IN PARIS AND THE WAR AGAINST OTHER EUROPEAN STATES THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY GAVE THE IDEA OF A LIMITED MONARCHY AND CHANGED THEIR LEGISLATURE. THEY CHANGED THEIR NAME TO THE
NATIONAL CONVENTION, ABOLISH THE MONARCHY AND CREATES A REPUBLIC.
BEFORE 1789
PEOPLE LIVE UNDER THE OLD REGIME.
So... everything you need to know summarized.
1: The National Assembly was succesful in organizing the Third Estate representatives against the OLD REGIME.
2: The National Assembly made a deal with Louis XVI that they would create a Constitutional Monarchy.
3: Louis XVI made a mistake. He accepted the petitions of the National Assembly but at the same time he rallied soldiers to defend him in case of trouble.
4: The people thought he was going to attack them to take his power back and they Stormed the Bastille to get gunpowder and weapons to defend themselves.
5: The King had to run away and for a moment there was no government. The Great Fear spread to rural areas where chaos and fear replaced the order established by the Old Regime.
6: Using this to their advantage the National Assembly took control of the government and forced the King to sign the declaration of Rights of men and the Citizen.
7: The King agreed because of fear and the National Assembly changed its name to the Legislative Assembly.
8: The Legislative Assembly ruled France. Political factions emerge as the members of the Assembly try to reach different goals for France.
9: Radicals, Moderates and Conservatives struggle to gain control over the Assembly.
10: European states go at war with France because they fear the ideas of the revolution might spread to their own nations.
France is at war with Europe!
11: In secret the King tried to organize a counterstrike against the Legislative Assembly.
12: This angered the members of the Assembly who turned radical gainst the King.
13: The king is trialed and executed for treason.
14: Seeing that the Constitutional Monarchy is not what the people want the Assembly changes the government once more, this time to a Republic ruled by the National Convention = another group of people more radical and more extreme in trying to preserve the ideals of the revolution.
15: In order to face the European nations that are at war with France the National Convention drafts (forces men to join the army) hundreds of thousands of men to fight the war.
16: Amongst the leaders of the National Convention one gains more power. A man known as Robespierre.
17: He uses fear and terror to maintaint the population of France under control.
18: Under Robespierre a period of french history known as the REGIME OF TERROR occurs.
19: Thousands are executed for going against the revolutionary ideas of Robespierre.
20: In the end the other members of the National Convention execute Robespierre ending the REGIME OF TERROR.
21: The war against other european states continues!
22: France is desperate to find an appropriate leader.
SUMMARY OF THE REVOLUTIONARY CAVE
1793
JANUARY 21 -
THE NATIONAL CONVENTION EXECUTES KING LOUIS XVI.
FEBRUARY 1 -
FRANCE DECLARES WAR ON MORE EUROPEAN STATES. THIS TIME ENGLAND AND HOLLAND. LATER ON THE 7 OF MARCH, TO SPAIN.
FOR EVERY DECISION THE DIFFERENT FACTIONS WOULD PRESENT THEIR ARGUMENTS TO REACH AN AGREEMENT.
SLOWLY ONE POLITICAL FACTION, OR GROUP, WON OVER THE OTHERS UNTIL THE ENTIRE ASSEMBLY WAS GOVERNED BY THOSE IDEALS.
IN THE CASE OF FRANCE IN THE YEAR 1793, IT WAS THE RADICALS WHO WON KILLING THE KING AND CREATING A REPUBLIC.
THE REGIME OF TERROR!
DESTRUCTION OF THE OLD REGIME AND EXECUTION OF THE KING!
THE OLD REGIME!
EMPEROR NAPOLEON, ABSOLUTE RULER!
1
2
3
4
OCTOBER 16 -
MARIE ANTOINETTE IS EXECUTED.
FEBRUARY -
THE NATIONAL CONVENTION EXPANDS THE ARMY BY DRAFTING (FORCING MEN TO JOIN THE ARMY) HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF MEN. THEY DID THIS TO FACE THE EUROPEAN NATIONS THAT WERE FIGHTING AGAINST FRANCE.
DURING SUMMER THAT YEAR -
MAXIMILIEN ROBESPIERRE ASSUMES POWER OF THE FRENCH REPUBLIC.
ROBESPIERRE WANTED TO DESTROY ALL OF FRANCE'S HORRID PAST:

HE WANTED TO WIPE OUT ALL TRACES OF THE MONARCHY, THE NOBILITY AND THE CHURCH.

CHURCHES WERE SHUT DOWN.

A NEW RELIGION WAS CREATED THAT
HONOURED GOD WITHOUT THE INTERVENTION OF THE CHURCH.

A NEW CALENDAR WAS CREATED.
THE REVOLUTION CHANGED
THE GOVERNMENT FROM THIS....
...TO THIS!
...TO THIS...
...TO THIS...
WHICH IS VERY SIMILAR TO THIS.
THE FRENCH
REVOLUTION
1789 - 1799

- The Declaration of the Rights of Men and the Citizen was a document written to speak of the unkistice of governments that ignore that the people are, in essence, te state. It was written to defend the Rights of men in a State. It spoke of equality, fraternity and liberty.
- TERMS -
This image by George Cruikshank (1792-1878) called “The Radical’s Arms” depicts the famous weapon of the Revolution, the Guillotine and the chaotic ways in which it was employed during the Reign of Terror to exemplify the extremes of the revolution.
END OF THE TERROR!
1794
JULY 28 -
MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL CONVENTION REALISED THAT NOT EVEN THEY WERE SAFE FROM THE EXTREME IDEAS OF ROBESPIERRE. THEY EXECUTE HIM UNDER THE GUILLOTINE ENDING
THE REGIME OF TERROR
.
LATE SUMMER -
PUBLIC OPINION, WHICH HAD BELIVED IN THE LIBERAL IDEAS OF THE REVOLUTION AND ROBESPIERRE (LEFT), WERE NOW DRAMATICALLY SHIFTING TO THE CONSERVATIVES (RIGHT).
1795
WINTER -
THE NATIONAL CONVENTION CHANGED THE CONSTITUTION ONCE MORE. THIS TIME CREATING ANOTHER GOVERNMENT AGAIN RULED BY THE BOURGEOISIE, BUT THIS TME BY ONLY THE HIGH MIDDLE CLASS.
WINTER -
THE NEW GOVERNMENT WAS KNOWN AS
THE DIRECTORY
AND WAS RULED BY NOT ONE BUT FIVE MEN. THESE MEN WERE MODERATES, NOR RADICALS OR CONSERVATIVES.
SUMMER -
DESPITE BEING VERY CORRUPT, THE DIRECTORY ORGANISED THE COUNTRY AND GAVE IT STABILITY. SOME OF THE PROBLEMS THAT HAD STARTED THE REVOLUTION WERE FINALLY SOLVED.
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