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Transcript of Moving West
but what about
the Native Americans?
Looking for opportunities to start a new life and make more money
Santa Fe Trail
California Gold Rush
United States Expands
War with Mexico
Mexico cedes the U.S. almost half of its land in return for $15 million
Includes: California, Utah, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada and Texas (which was annexed or added to U.S. territory in 1845)
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848 ends the war and sets new boundaries between the U.S. and Mexico
James Gadsden purchases southern Arizona in 1853 from Mexico for $10 million to lay railroad tracks on flat land
Miners moved west hoping to strike it rich when rumors of gold in California were spread
Exodusters were African Americans moving west for a better life
Sodbusters were poor farmers moving west for a better life
Missouri to Oregon
Missouri to Santa Fe, New Mexico
Great Plains region purchased from France in 1803 for $15 million
Ceded by Great Britain in 1846 (in exchange for a smooth border between Canada and the U.S.)
Ceded by Spain in 1819
How did they get there?
Who moved west?
Ranchers brought cattle west to live in the open frontier
Cowhands learned from the vaqueros how to roundup and drive cattle back to their ranches
The invention of barbed wire ended cattle grazing and roundups as ranchers began to fence in their land
East coast to San Francisco area in California
After some fighting, the U.S. admits Texas as a slave state in 1845
Mexico decides to fight over Texas, resulting in a war
What was the Native American Experience?
Wounded Knee Massacre (1890)
Indian Removal Act (1830)
Trail of Tears (1838-1839)
15,000 Cherokees were forced to walk the 1,000 mile Trail of Tears from Georgia to Oklahoma, half did not survive
With all of the movement west, the open frontier quickly changed and boomtowns sprouted up
This treaty guaranteed the land to the Native Americans "as long as grass grows or water runs"
First Treaty of
Fort Laramie (1851)
The U.S. government bought back some of the Native American land and set reservation boundaries
Sand Creek Massacre (1864)
After Natives attacked a group of settlers, the U.S. military responded by killing over 150 Cheyenne men, women, and children in Colorado
Fetterman Massacre (1866)
The Sioux tribe killed 80 soldiers to protect their hunting grounds
Second Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868)
Guaranteed large reservation lands in South Dakota
Battle of the
Little Bighorn (1877)
Thousands of Sioux gather with Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull to attack Colonel Custer and his 210 soldiers - the Sioux killed all of the soldiers in less than two hours of fighting
Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce tribe led a 1,000 mile escape to Canada but was captured only 40 miles from freedom
Navajos surrender to U.S. troops in 1863 after their homes and crops are burned down, 8,000 start the 300 mile journey to New Mexico but hundreds die along the way
Geronimo led a group of Apaches that refused to stay on the reservation, surviving by raiding settlers' homes, but Geronimo was captured in 1886 and sent to prison
300 Plains people perform the ghost dance to ask their ancestors for help but are feared by soldiers who panic after hearing a gunshot and kill all 300 men, women, and children at Wounded Knee Creek
Native Americans relied on buffalo for food, clothing, shelter, and tools, but the railroad companies were hiring people to kill off the wild buffalo
Land was fenced off for each Native family so that they could learn to farm and sent the Native children to boarding schools to learn white culture (Dawes Act)
The U.S.'s expansion increased population and railroads in the west while it decreased the land available and respect for Native Americans
Sitting Bull's group surrenders in 1881 on the way to Canada
Crazy Horse surrenders in 1877
The Dawes Act was designed to stop the fighting between settler's and Native Americans by "Americanizing" them, but instead it nearly killed an entire culture
"Buffalo Bill" and his Wild West Show made settlers believe Native Americans were dangerous - causing more conflict
means to blend into something (like another culture)