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Copy of Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA

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Juan Pardo

on 29 May 2011

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Transcript of Copy of Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA

Biotechnology What is it?? First Of all It is a field in biology that uses the living thing's information in order to help in many fields like
medicine or agriculture.
Or as The United Nations Convention on Biological
Diversity defines it: "Any technological application
that uses biological systems, living organisms, or
derivatives thereof, to make or modify products
or proceses for specific use."
It involves many bioproceses and techniques. Techniques like:
-Recombinant DNA
-DNA extraction
-Sequencing We'll talk about this one
later and deeper The other
techniques But for now DNA Extraction Basically it is a technique used to collect the DNA from an organism It is used in molecular and fornesic analysis it requires four steps "1. Breaking the cells open, commonly referred to as cell disruption or cell lysis, to expose the DNA within. This is commonly achieved by grinding or sonicating the sample.
2. Removing membrane lipids by adding a detergent.
3. Removing proteins by adding a protease (optional but almost always done).
4. Precipitating the DNA with an alcohol usually ice-cold ethanol or isopropanol. Since DNA is insoluble in these alcohols, it will aggregate together, giving a pellet upon centrifugation. This step also removes alcohol-soluble salt." Polymerase Chain
Reaction or PCR It is a technique used to amplify copies of pieces of DNA It is used for DNA cloning, diagnosis of hereditary diseases, the identification of genetic fingerprints, in forensics and in paternal tests, and the detection and diagnosis of infectious diseases. Electrophoresis It is a technique used to separate DNA acording to size of the molecules It uses the DNA negative charge due to the phospates Sequencing It is a group of techniques used to determine the order of the nucleotides in a determined DNA strand http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNA_extraction
http://www.ehow.com/about_6165534_application-recombinant-dna-technology.htm DNA microarrays It is basically a technology that takes some DNA and aranges it into a chip to detect genes or the DNA Now Recombinant DNA Recombinant DNA molecules are DNA sequences that result from the use of laboratory methods to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating different sequences that would not otherwise be found in biological organisms. Method (Molecular cloning) Choice of the host and cloning vector
Pepraration of vector DNA
Preparation of DNA to be cloned
Introduction of the rDNA into the host
Cloning Recombination process Use the same restriction endonuclease to treat both DNA material (Host – DNA of interest)
The restriction enzyme cuts both molecules at the same place and time
The ends of the cut have an overhanging piece of single-stranded DNA called “ sticky ends”
These sticky ends are able to base pair with any DNA molecule that contains the complementary sticky end
Complementary sticky ends pair with each other
DNA ligase join the two strands into a molecule of recombinant DNA
In order to be useful, the recombinant DNA needs to be replicated many times According to the type of plasmid vector that is used in the rDNA process, it can be called: http://sciencestage.com/v/151/ampicillin-dna-bacteria-protein-recombinant.html Expression of recombinant DNA Recombinant Proteins

When recombinant DNA encoding a protein is introduced into a host organism, the recombinant protein will not necessarily be produced
Expression of foreign proteins requires the use of specialized expression vectors and often necessitates significant restructuring of the foreign coding sequence. Protein expression depends upon the gene being surrounded by a collection of signals that include the promoter, the ribosome binding site, and the terminator. Properties of organisms containing recombinant DNA PHENOTYPE appearance, behavior and metabolism are usually unchanged If it changes is because… The recombinant gene has been chosen and modified so as to generate biological activity in the host organism And most of the times… The body will produce toxicity to the host organism induced by the recombinant gene product Deleterious effects (insertional incativation + inappropriate activation of previously unexpressed host cell genes ) APLICATIONS Recombinant human Insuline
Recombinant blood clotting Factor VIII
Recombinant hepatitis B vaccine
Diagnosis of infection with HIV
Golden Rice
Herbicide-Resistant Crops
Insect-Resistant Crops ETHICS BIBLIOGRAPHY http://www.etftrends.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/biotechnology.jpg http://www.mysciencebox.org/files/images/strawberry%20DNA.jpg - Some times when a DNA is recombinant the change in the gene’s structure can stimulates the development of other hidden harmful genes.

- When cutting a piece of the DNA in the plasmid, important information can be deleted.

- Even when appearance, metabolic processes and behavior are not usually changed, sometimes a rDNA can develop and change the structure internal o external of the chosen organism

- Religiously: People think that when changing the DNA scientist are playing to be God and it is not right

- Changes in the genetic material can lead humanity to the lost of the natural selection and lost of many specie genes and the adding to the specie’s variety of gene, a lot more ones from other species.

- Recombinat DNA can help to improve the life of a lot of people and also help to get us more healthy and helpful things such as food, and medecines. Agarose Gel Negative Electrode Positive Electrode
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