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John Ang

on 6 October 2013

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By: John Ang and Jacob Morton
transports oxygen, nutrients, water, hormones
to the cells of your body.
Removes wastes
from cells of your body and takes them to disposal sites such as the liver, lungs, and kidneys.
It also regulates body temperature.
It consists of the
heart, blood vessels, and blood
The Heart
It is located in the middle of the chest slightly tilted to the left.
It weighs
10 to 11 ounces
and is about the size of a person's fist.
It is enclosed in a protective sac called the
The human heart is a
muscular organ
. It is made out of
cardiac muscle
It is an
involuntary organ
, which means it doesn’t require direct signals from the brain to function.
The Function of the Heart
The heart's main function is to
pump blood
throughout the body.
The heart contracts and relaxes 70 times a minute and more than a 100,000 times each day.
During an average lifetime, the heart beats almost
2.5 billion times
without stopping.
The heart pumps blood to all of the body’s 75 trillion cells EXCEPT the corneas.

Blood vessels are hollow tubes that transport blood to and from the organs.
Three types of blood vessels:
arteries, veins, and capillaries

Blood Vessels
Blood Vessels
The biggest artery is the
The aorta reaches the abdomen, thighs, and legs.
The biggest vein is the
vena cava
In the adult human body there are about
60,000 miles of blood vessels

Blood is a tissue compound providing the body with nutrition, oxygen, and waste removal.
It is
3 to 4 times thicker than water
Half of its volume is made up of solid particles and cells.
Our body contains about
5 liters
of blood.

Red Blood Cells
Shaped like a
without the hole.
Take up about
44% of blood
Equipped with a protein called
, which
absorbs and distributes oxygen and carbon dioxide
Produced in the bone marrow
and only stays in the bloodstream for
120 days
Old cells are destroyed in the spleen and liver.

Blood Types
There are 4 blood types.
A, B, AB, and O
are substances that stimulate an immediate response in the human body. The letters
A and B stand for the types of antigens
on a red blood cell.
Blood plasma contains
that are shaped to correspond with the different blood antigens.

Circulation of Blood
left ventricle
pumps the oxygenated blood into the
where it is taken to a bed of capillaries where oxygen is given to the tissues.
The used blood is carried in the veins back to the
right atrium
of the heart.
It is then pumped into the
right ventricle
to be pumped to the
for oxygen.

Circulation of Blood
The lungs then pump the blood into the
left atrium
left atrium
moves the blood into the
left ventricle
, which pumps the blood throughout the body, restarting the cycle.
Myocardial Infarction (Heart Attack)
Caused by a plaque in the coronary arteries.
Death of a cardiac tissue due to lack of blood supply.
Causes permanent damage to the heart muscle.

Heart Attack Treatments
- A surgically placed wire mesh tube that is placed in a coronary artery to keep it open so blood can flow.
Bypass Surgery
- It takes a healthy artery or vein from another part of the body and connects it to the aorta and diseased artery.
- A tube with a balloon on the end is threaded into the blocked artery. The balloon is filled with liquid which presses the plaque against the artery wall. This opens up the artery.

Heart Failure
Heart failure is when the heart is
unable to pump enough blood
to your body.
The inability to pump blood
causes lungs to become congested
and hold to more blood than it should.
heart enlarges
, the liver is not able to work efficiently, while the
legs and abdomen get swollen

Heart Failure Treatments
Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator
- This device monitors the heart rhythm and if the heart stops or goes into a dangerous rhythm, the device will try to pace it back to normal or shock it back into rhythm.
- This device is implanted under your skin near the heart and sends electrical pulses to the heart to ensure its rhythm is normal and control the heartbeat. It is about the size of a half dollar coin.

1628 – William Harvey, an English physician, first describes blood circulation.
1733 – Stephen Hales, an English scientist, first measures blood pressure
1816– Rene T. H. Laennec, a French physician, invents the stethoscope.
1903 – Willem Einhoven, a Dutch physician, develops the electrocardiograph.

1938 – Robert E. Gross, an American surgeon, performs the first heart surgery.
1952 – F. John Lewis, an American surgeon, performs the first successful open heart surgery.
1953 – John H. Gibbon, an American surgery, first uses a mechanical heart and blood purifier.
1967 – A South African surgeon performs the first successful whole heart transplant.
Works Cited
"Blood Vessels." - The Human Heart: An Online Exploration from The Franklin Institute, Made Possible by Unisys. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Oct. 2013.
"Blood Vessels." About.com Biology. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Oct. 2013.
"Body Systems." : Circulatory System. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Oct. 2013.
"Brenda's A & P Eportfolio." : Objective 21: Explain ABO Blood Types and Their Importance in Blood Transfusion. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Oct. 2013.
"Cardiovascular System." InnerBody. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Oct. 2013.
"Circulatory System." About.com Biology. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Oct. 2013.
"Circulatory System." About.com Biology. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Oct. 2013.
"Circulatory System." Circulatory System. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Oct. 2013.
"Circulatory System: Facts, Function & Diseases." LiveScience.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Oct. 2013.
"Circulatory System." Prezi.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Oct. 2013.
"The Heart and Circulation of Blood." The Heart and Circulation of Blood. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Oct. 2013.
"The Heart and Circulation of Blood." The Heart and Circulation of Blood. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Oct. 2013.
"Heart." National Geographic. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Oct. 2013.
"Home: Where The Heart Is." The Human Heart: An Online Exploration from The Franklin Institute, Made Possible by Unisys. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Oct. 2013.
"Human Anatomy: Blood - Cells, Plasma, Circulation, and More." WebMD. WebMD, n.d. Web. 04 Oct. 2013.
"The Human Heart." The Human Heart. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Oct. 2013.
"KidsHealth." Heart and Circulatory System. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Oct. 2013.
Chambers of the Heart
There are
four chambers
in the heart divided into a left and right side by a muscular wall called the
The two upper chambers are called
The two lower chambers are called
receive blood returning from circulation.
receive blood from the atria and pump it out of the heart into the circulation.
Valves of the Heart
Valves are
located between the chambers
of the heart.
They keep the blood flowing in the right direction in the heart by opening and closing, creating a one-way passage.
Tricuspid Valve
- Between the right atrium and the right ventricle.
Pulmonary Valve
- Between the right ventricle and the pulmonary arteries.
Mitral Valve
- Between the left atrium and the left ventricle.
Aortic Valve
- Between the left ventricle and the aorta.
Types of Circulatory Circuits
Pulmonary Circuit
- In the pulmonary circuit, blood leaves the heart through the pulmonary arteries, enters the lungs, and reenters the heart through the pulmonary veins carrying oxygenated blood.
Systemic Circuit
- In the systemic circuit, the oxygenated blood leaves the heart through the aorta, distributes oxygen through the systemic arteries, then returns to the heart through systemic veins.
Blood Vessels
carry oxygenated blood to the rest of the body.
carry the unoxygenated blood back to the heart.
connect the two together and exchange oxygen and nutrients with waste from the blood to cells in the body.
They are thick, muscular, and elastic vessels that
carry blood away
from the heart.
They bulge with each heartbeat because of the blood gushing through them.
They branch out into smaller and smaller arteries called
From arterioles, blood enters the capillaries, where the
exchange of gases and nutrients
between blood and cells takes place.
They are the
smallest vessels
. Its walls are only one cell thick and they are
1/10 of the width of a hair
There are about
10 billion capillaries
in the body.
They reach virtually every cell.
return the blood
to the heart and carry cell waste to the lungs and kidneys.
Thinner and less flexible than arteries.
They have
to keep the blood from flowing backwards.
They have
no pressure
depend on skeletal muscles
to move blood back to the heart.
Blood Pressure
Blood pressure is the
force of the blood exerted on the walls of blood vessels
as it passes by.
pressure is when the heart
pressure is when the heart is at
Blood pressure is read as two numbers, with
systolic on top and diastolic on the bottom
. Example (Normal Blood Pressure): 120 over 80 mm Hg(mercury).
Types of Blood Cells
red blood
cells carry oxygen and carbon dioxide around the body.
white blood
cells fight infections in the bloodstream.
help the blood to clot when there is an injury.
is the fluid portion of blood, transporting the cells.
They are actually
colorless and irregularly shaped
They are larger than RBC's, but are much fewer in number. There is
1 white cell for every 700 RBC's
They make up
of the total volume of blood.
live only for about 2 weeks
They can move through tissue into parts of the body to destroy harmful bacteria.
White Blood Cells
They are
oval shaped and without a nucleus.
They are
smaller than red and white cells
Live for about a week
clump together when there is an injury
and release
enzymes that make a blood clot
Types of Heart Disease
Coronary Artery Disease
Plaque buildup in the arteries
blocks the blood flow.
Plaque buildup, or hardening of the arteries, is called
It can cause a
heart attack
, which blocks coronary arteries.
It can also cause a
, in which an artery to the brain is blocked.
It is the #1 killer in America.
CAD Prevention and Treatment
Quit smoking.
Avoid high cholesterol foods.
Low fat and salt diet.
Keep blood sugar in control IF you are diabetic.
Exercise at least 30 minutes every day.
Learn relaxation techniques to reduce stress and tension.
Circulatory System Quiz
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