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Defense of Research Proposal

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on 10 July 2016

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Transcript of Defense of Research Proposal

Digital History

Current Progress
Main Supervisor :
Background Study:
Digital History
Participatory Playful Interaction

Mobile Learning

Defence of Research Proposal
Nurwahida Faradila Taharim
Lack of theoretical framework on playful interaction design in mobile learning.
Playful elements or behaviour often neglected in mobile design interface
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Anitawati Binti Mohd Lokman
Co-Supervisor :
Dr. Wan Abdul Rahim Bin Wan Mohd Isa
Kansei Engineering (KE)
Education is an important life domain of the ‘Quality of Life’ (QoL) construct.
The expectation of the younger generation on their learning experience changes
Education providers challenged to provide digital scholarship that incorporates aesthetic, playful, emotional and pleasurable interaction.
Research focus:
digital history lessons
playful digital experience
promote the learning of history
Research important area:
Digital history
Mobile learning
Participatory playful interaction
Kansei Engineering (KE).
Research outcome:
Provide the foundation for conceptual and theoretical understanding
Provide grounded basis for future works on developing more effective and new mobile technology devices with embedded pedagogy in mobile learning for participatory playful interaction.
The usage of digital history raises its potential of becoming a suitable digital tool for teachers to design the teaching and learning activities of history using authentic historical resources.
Create engaging, meaningful, and useful lessons about the past.
the effort of
creating digital ecologies for play interaction in a museum environment
(Wakkary, Hatala & Newby, 2006)

work on the propagation of digital scholarship in history via digital visualization
(Shifttlet, 2007; Razali, Noor & Wan Adnan, 2009).
Experience design is an emerging paradigm in HCI that capitalizes the interactive media to create experiences that produce
desired perceptions
, and
by incorporating affective or
emotional design
elements in the interaction (Norman, 2003; Follet, 2007; Lokman et al., 2013).
One such interaction is the
playful interaction
which is mostly seen in computer games design (Kuts, 2009).
Elements of
such as play acting or play in learning has not been exploited to include participatory learning with ease of use (Huang, Sung, 2008; Schreoter & Foth, 2009).
Morgan and Kennewell agreed that when learners experience “
” in learning may allow the learners to
enhance decision making, control their own action and improve their competence
(Morgan and Kennewell, 2005).
of interaction space has always been a
challenging factor
for mobile learning (Locke & Roy, 2012; Vodvarsky et al, 2007).
Combination of
“playfulness” in interaction
other supporting learning materials
increase the learner’s engagement
(Vodvarsky et al, 2007).
Thus, student may focus and interact more during class and
boredom may no longer becoming an issue
elements of playfulness and pleasure
, drawn from Costello’s and Edmonds’s work provide insights that applicable in designing interactive application that may
creates pleasurable learning experience
(Costello & Edmonds, 2007; Lucero A. and Arrasvuori J. 2010).
Mobile learning
creates engagements
in terms of knowledge exchange and
enhances communication
between learners and teachers whereby the efforts are seen to
produce a successful learning
(Taharim, Lokman & Wan Mohd Isa, 2013).
History subject is known as a boring subject.
Traditionally, learners need to remember the all facts that happened in historical event (Hadi, Wan Daud & Ibrahim, 2011).
Often loss their attention
in class and as a result, many have barely scored in the subject and even worst, some are failed.
A research conducted in Singapore (Looi et al, 2011):
Mobilized the lesson for science curriculum for 3rd grade
Those classes that were using mobile technologies in their lesson

performed much better in class.
Found that learning using mobile allows the student to learn science in




Mobile learning in Malaysia is still
at the early stage
(Yusuf et al, 2011). It can be done with a
proper study and plan
(Mohamad & Woollard, 2010) and support and directive from the government.
crucial study
however should be done at the first place (Embi & Panah, 2013).
Kansei is a Japanese word that brought the meaning of affective or emotional. It is a very subjective emotional (Md Nor, Lokman & Nagamachi, 2008).
The user may sense the product to be attractive but different user may feel differently towards the same product
Kansei Engineering is an engineering principle or method.
Measure the product which incorporated with emotional or affection attributes towards a product.
Without a proper measure using specific instrument, the result will be varies and vague and designer could not value required Kansei word (elements) on a product (Chen, Chiu & Lin, 2007).
Kansei elements or Kansei Words (KWs) in Kansei Engineering (KE) are a set of words that illustrates affection, feelings and emotions.
There are 820 KWs were identified (Lokman & Kamruddin, 2010) and 15 words are selected for the study.
The study also believes that Kansei elements are important and should be included when designing an interaction in M-Learning.
The injection from Kansei produces a product that matches consumers’ desire and needs (Lokman, 2010).
M-Learning has brought education method and perspective to the next level.
Now, learning sessions need not take place in a classroom, but can be conveniently conducted anytime and anywhere.
Designers or developers need to consider the relevance of playfulness and Kansei elements which the study believes that a playful interaction happens when students enjoys and having fun while learning History using mobile.
HCI lacks in theories and methods to facilitate approaches to design products which allow for pleasurable, enjoyable, and entertaining interaction (Stelmaszewska, Fields & Blandford, 2004)
HCI research has shifted into emotional and cultural technologies (Bodker, 2006).
Interest in “user experience” research or the “new usability” of affective factors such as “fun'” and “trust” (Cockton, 2006).
Previously, research focus more on technologies in a work-related context with explicit rational but now the focus is
aiming at delivering a more social or emotional experience
. (i.e., instrumental) purposes (Abeele & Zaman, 2008).
Playful interaction is a new concept under interaction design.
Create a deeper engagement between user and the product which making the learning process becomes more effectively (Taharim, et al., 2013).
Having only interactive experience is not enough.
Interactive experiences involve level of explorative unfamiliarity but it does not mean it is a playful familiarity (Costello & Edmonds, 2007).
Bring engagement between audience’s experience and work to deeper level.
Playfulness must be included in the interactions and mobility (Korhonen, Montola, & Arrasvuori, 2009) (Vodvarsky et al, 2007).
Kansei Engineering (KE) has different perspective in making the whole interaction experience as ‘affective satisfaction’ (Wakkary, Hatala & Newby, 2006).
Therefore, adopting playfulness elements and injection from Kansei Engineering in mobile learning may increase the connectivity between user and learning interactivity
Lack of interest in learning History

In the year 2013, MoE has made history subjects as compulsory pass subject for Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM) (Jumrah, 2013).
History is often said to be a difficult subject and rather dull by the students.
Abundance of information related to historical events, facts & date
Requires memorization and in-depth understanding
The student shows less interest in learning the subject (Mahamad, Ibrahim, & Taib, 2012).
Lack of creativity in history teaching also contributes to boredom and loss of interest.
A 3D and multimedia technology should be applied in History lesson
Fact will be clearer and learning history will be more interesting (Hadi, Daud & Ibrahim, 2011).
With a good framework, M-Learning could be realized successfully (Dye, Fagerberg & Rekkedal, 2005)
Affective and emotional domain in M-Learning design often neglected
Affection and emotion are equally important when expressing a feeling towards a product.
Identify whether or not the user satisfied with the product.
However affection and emotion aspect have often been overlooked and neglected in education research (Kallenbach et al., 2010)
While emotional state such how people remember presented material, because emotions influence attention, memory and processing strategies, however, happened to be critical importance in the learning process (Ravaja, 2004).
Apply Kansei Engineering for user's emotion & affection.
convert subjective and even unconscious feelings about a product into concrete design parameters (Schütte, 2005).
The objectives of the research are:

To develop a theoretical framework of participatory playful interaction in mobile learning.
To provide empirical support of the framework through series of empirical investigations.
To analyze interrelations between emotional responses and M-Learning design.
To identify and improve methods capable of grasping those affective and emotional values and translating them into concrete product design solutions.
To develop a design guideline that enables the incorporation of emotional responses in M-Learning design.

Research Objectives
Research Question 1
What is the possible theoretical framework that could be proposed based on the instructional design, playful interaction and Kansei Engineering?
Research Question 2
Research Question 3
How participatory playful interaction can support mobile learning?
How can digital history be conceptualized in a mobile participatory playful interaction mode?
Research Questions
Participatory playful interaction
Affection and emotional feeling
Scope & Limitation
Fun, enjoyable & effective learning
Theoretical Framework Domain
Theoretical Contributions
Empirical Contributions
Methodological Contributions
Theoretical framework of participatory playful interaction in mobile learning
A taxonomy for Kansei elements in identifying user’s emotion towards a product.

Empirical evidence that existing mobile learning application neglecting participatory playful interaction and injection from Kansei engineering.
Empirical evidence that proposed design template embeds Kansei.
Method to evaluate Kansei on digital history mobile learning
Design template for mobile learning application with participatory playful interaction and Kansei embedded.

Type 1: High Transactional Distance and Socialized Mobile Learning Activity (HS)
State of learners:
 Students who subscribe to Internet-based digital content
 Students (instructors) who miss the class

Type 2: High Transactional Distance and Individualized Mobile Learning Activity (HI)
State of learners:
 Multi-user online game via mobile devices
 Students solve the quiz (e.g., science, math) in group
 Use of simulation and calculation tool

Type 3: Low Transactional Distance and Socialized Mobile Learning Activity (LS)
State of learners:
 Investigation tool for the field trip in science learning
 Guiding tool in the museum setting

Type 4: Low Transactional Distance and Individualized Mobile Learning Activity (LI)
State of learners:
 Use of multi-functions such as investigation tools, probware, communication tool,
 Assessment tool, simulation, and game
 Use of local awareness function (e.g., GPS)
The activity conducted will be identified based on three (3) types of user-product interaction and they are (Forlizzi & Battarbee, 2004):

The interaction will show the ability of the student to express oneself articulately, easily and the experiences that result from the interaction.

The interaction is focuses on mastering the device at hand and the efficiency in delivering a task given.
The interaction is focuses on a relationship that formed while interacting with the application, device, teachers and other students.

Theoretical framework for playful interaction design in mobile learning can be developed based on instructional design, playful interaction and Kansei Engineering, in order to create a deeper engagement between young learners and history lesson by a play-based approach.
Research Framework
Gantt Chart
Objective of this study is to provide a theoretical framework of playful interaction in mobile learning
The significant of theoretical framework with injection from KE will prescribed as a guideline to construct a fun, joyful and quality learning experience
Producing a product that may satisfies user’s feelings.
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