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Genetic and environmental influences on intelligence.

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by

Akihiro Nakamura

on 11 December 2013

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Transcript of Genetic and environmental influences on intelligence.

Genes Overview
Genes are just traits that are passed down from one generation to another generation. They have major affect on how we develop as organisms from something very basic such as eye color to sometimes as complex as a certain personality trait.
(Aggressiveness, sense of humor,etc)
Intelligence is hereditary
From studying people with familiar genetic makeups we can see that intelligence is indeed very heritable as shown by Bouchard and McGue (1981) who reviewed about 111 original studies.
It can also have a major affect on intelligence in individuals. Although we only know so much due to the studies that were conducted among people with identical or familiar genetic makeup.( Families, siblings, twin studies)
AP Psychology- Learning and intelligence
Genetic and environmental influences on intelligence. Group differences
By Akihiro Nakamura

These 111 studies have shown that the mean correlation between identical twins were .87, siblings were .47 and half siblings had a .31 correlation signifying a connection between genetics and intelligence.
This probably means...
However....
So if your parents were smart and intelligent so its likely that you'll have the same traits as your parents
Disorders such as down syndrome can be caused by a genetic mutation impairing the intelligence of the individual. In addition "bad" genes can be passed down to an offspring such as the gene apolipoprotein E. Which is known to increase the risk of having Alzheimers within a person .
Gender based genes
In addition to this the X and Y chromosomes do have some kind of affect on intelligence. Since men have a only one X chromosome they only need one recessive allele to for a disease or disorder to take affect, unlike women who need two. Hence why mental disorders such as retardation is more common in men than women.
Intelligence
What is intelligence? Intelligence is just the ability to learn from experiences, use knowledge to our situations, and solve problems.

For example remember when you rode your first bicycle? It was hard at first, but the more you tried the more you knew about riding a bicycle. You learned to keep the thing moving and carefully balance your weight so you don't follow off. Overtime you learned what not to do and what to do when you ride a bicycle.
Yet, men are more likely to have higher cognitive skills than women because natural selection favored the development of X linked genes that are linked to higher intellectual thinking.
No doesn't mean that men are more intelligent than women
In fact on average, women are shown to be more intelligent than men. It's just that the variance of men's intelligence is higher than women. Meaning there are more men scoring the low ends of the IQ scores and the high ends of the IQ scores
In conclusion about genetic influences on intelligence
Genetics do play a major role in determining the quality of our intelligence and how fast we process and use information, however they only serve to make people more academically inclined. Genes are mostly responsible for stability during age to age changes. Ex. Growing from a teenager to a adult
No matter where they go..
Further proving that genetics does have a affect on intelligence, research has shown that twins that are separated during birth still have a high mean correlation to their IQ scores despite living in different environments.
Picture of graph
Despite the fact twins are separated they still show a high correlation between each other.
Environmental affects on intelligence.
Although heredity shapes the mind of a individual early on, environment plays a major role in shaping intelligence as humans develop into their later years. Genetic expression is even influenced by the environment.
Early nutrition
Malnutrition or any other types of nutrient problems before birth or shortly after birth can negatively attribute to the individual's cognitive abilities. Their memory, reasoning and academic achievements can be impaired as a result.
Toxic substances
Harmful substance such as alcohol and drugs can damage the neurological development of children and adolescents. Ex. Fetal alcohol syndrome occurs in children when the mother consumes large amounts of alcohol during their pregnancy. These children can suffer from poor memory, slower cognitive thinking, and difficulty in speech
Early intervention
People who grew up in a impoverish environment are less intelligent compared to people who grew up in a more healthy environment. This is because they have less opportunities or resources to take advantage of. Ex. Lack of money, new textbooks, war, bad teachers, oppressive governments.
Schooling effect
Schooling effect is a experience that helps to increase one's intelligence. IQ tests scores are usually related to how much schooling you get. The more time you spent schooling a individual the more higher he/she scores on average.
Group differences in intelligence
Although we have different races to identify ourselves to, all races are in fact all genetically alike. Race is just a social category.
However
There are differences in how one group score on intelligence from another group. For example Whites score a average of 100 on a IQ test while blacks score a average of 84 on the test.
But..
The gap is slowly diminishing as a result of blacks being treated better then they were a hundred years ago. This suggests that environment plays more of a role than what race you are. In fact it is highly difficult to connect race to intellect making this a hotly debated topic amount IQ testers.
Bias
It is believed IQ test performances are bias due to differences in culture. For example a person learning English might have a hard time understand a question. Test results can reflect their poor skill in English but not their intelligence.
But they aren't really bias in the sense that can precisely measure the performance of one group over another.
What do these two have in common?
Women are "on average" more intelligent than men but men show more variance
Environment's affect on intelligence
Environment clearly has a affect on intelligence. It can still shape the mind of a young individual later in his/her later years. As a matter of fact it is almost impossible to tell which has more of an effect on intelligent as they both depend and influence each other
Bibilography

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"THE GENETIC BASIS OF INTELLIGENCE." Science Creative Quarterly. N.p., Aug. 2004. Web. 04 Dec. 2013.

"Genetic Causes of Mental Retardation." Resources. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Dec. 2013.

"Genetic Influences on Intelligence." Boundless. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Dec. 2013.

"Group Differences in Intelligence." Boundless. Boundless.com, n.d. Web. 04 Dec. 2013.

"Influence of Heredity and Environment." SparkNotes. SparkNotes, n.d. Web. 04 Dec. 2013.

"Intelligence Definition." Brain Metrix. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Dec. 2013.

Plomin R. "Genetics and Intelligence." Genetics and Intelligence. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Dec. 2013.

Sutton, Reid V. "Genetics and Mental Retardation." Kids:. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Dec. 2013.

"Test Bias." Test Bias. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Dec. 2013.

Whiting, Gilman. "Cultural Bias in Testing." Education.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Dec. 2013.
Early intervention simply refers to programs that that are given to children who live in poverty and recently who have developmental disabilities. These programs hope to improve the cognitive, academics, and social aspects of the children and prevent any negative effects from develop furthermore in a child's brain.
Stereotype threat
Stereotype threat is a self conceiving concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype
In a research done by Micheal Inzlicht, he reveals that individuals that performed the tasks in the face of negative stereotyping performed worst then the control group
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