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Transcript of Hormones
What are Hormones???
Hormones are chemical substances that are produced in glands and help regulate many of the body’s functions.
Hormones that play a large part in the sexual reproduction of humans are estrogen and progesterone in females and testosterone in males.
The glands that secrete the hormones are found in the endocrine system and are located all throughout the body. Each gland has at least one particular function that it is in charge of carrying out.
The Endocrine System
Endocrine Glands are ductless, or tubeless, organs or groups of cells that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream.
The Endocrine System is made up of a number of different glands and many of them contribute to the functions of the reproductive systems in both males and females.
The glands that are found in the endocrine system are:
2. Pineal Gland
3. Pituitary Gland
4. Thymus Gland
5. Thyroid Gland
6. Adrenal Glands
This gland links the endocrine system with the nervous system and stimulates the pituitary gland to secrete hormones.
This gland secretes melatonin, which regulates sleep cycles, and has a role with the onset of puberty.
This gland is known as the Master Gland because it regulates
and controls the actions and activities of the other endocrine glands.
This gland is responsible for regulating the development of the immune system.
The hormones that this gland produces regulate metabolism,
body heat, and bone growth throughout puberty
These glands produce hormones that control the body’s salt and water
balance, as well as secrete the hormones from the adrenal cortex and
adrenal medulla that control the body’s emergency response.
This gland secretes two hormones that regulate the level of glucose in the blood – glucagon and insulin.
These are the male gonads and they are responsible for producing the hormone testosterone.
Testosterone initiates the physical changes that signify maturity and include a number of different secondary sex characteristics.
These characteristics are:
These are the female gonads that produce estrogen and progesterone,
as well as house the developing ovum or eggs.
Estrogen and Progesterone are responsible for initiating the menstrual
cycle, the onset of puberty, and the development of secondary sex characteristics.
The Female Hormones
Estrogen and Progesterone
This hormone is an essential part of a woman’s reproductive
system because it regulates the menstrual cycle, as well as
prepares the uterus for pregnancy. It enriches and thickens
the endometrium walls.
Estrogen production is controlled by two other hormones.
These hormones are known as the luteinizing hormone (LH)
and the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH).
Estrogen also contributes to the development of secondary sex characteristics, which are the defining differences between men and women, but do not relate to reproduction.
This hormone is produced just before ovulation in order to enhance the possibility of becoming pregnant.
Some effects of a rise in progesterone levels prior to ovulation include:
1.A slight increase of body temperature
2.Creation of more vagina mucus, which makes sperm more likely to survive to reach and fertilize an egg
3.Makes the uterus muscles less likely to contract.
Other Hormones in the Female Body
1. The broadening of shoulders
2. The development of muscles
3. The development of facial and pubic hair
4. Deepening of the voice
1. The development of pubic hair
3. Widening of the hips
4. Elevated levels of body fat in the hips,
thighs, and buttox.
Why Do Humans Have Pubic Hair?
2. Development of Breasts