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Endangered Species

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by

Kyle Gregory

on 16 February 2015

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Transcript of Endangered Species

Amphibian
Physical traits: (1) Archey’s frog is the smallest species of New Zealand frog, with females measuring about 37 mm snout to rear in total length and males being slightly smaller at 31 mm (2) The species varies in color from mainly green (rarely) through combinations of green and brown to mainly brown. (3) The skin has defensive granular glands, which are concentrated into discrete patches arranged down the back and sides in about six longitudinal rows. (4) These glands are also found on the upper surface of the legs, feet and arms. (5) It has no webbing in the hind toes and no eardrum.
Birds
Physical traits: (1) Bluish gray face and back (2) Yellow throat, chest, and belly (3) White crescents above and below eyes (4) Two white wingbars (5) Black stripes down sides.
Reptiles
6.08 Animals
Fish
Physical traits: (1) Atlantic bluefins are dark blue to black on their dorsal (upper) surface and silvery ventrally (underneath). (2) They are known for their finlets that run down their dorsal (upper) and ventral (lower) sides toward their anal fin. (3) There are 12-14 spines in their first dorsal fin and 13-15 rays in their second dorsal fin. (4) Their anal fin has 11-15 rays. (5) The average natural lifespan of bluefin tunas is 15-30 years.
Mammals
Physical traits: (1) Massive head (2) White and black fur (3) Oily fur that protects them from harsh conditions (4) Fur is thick and course (5) They have forepaws.
Bluefin Tuna
Archey's frog (Leiopelma archeyi)
San Francisco garter snake

Kirtland’s warbler

Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/San_Francisco_garter_snake
http://giant-panda.com/mother-baby.html
http://www.edgeofexistence.org/amphibians/species_info.php?id=546
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kirtland's_Warbler
http://www.europacifictuna.com/bluefin.htm
Animal behaviors: (1) When startled they will move with a slow trot to escape danger (2) Can climb trees very easily.
Reason for Endangerment: The giant pandas are an endangered species because their poached for there furs and also because of habitat loss.
Common ecosystem: Giant pandas live in a few mountain ranges in central China, in Sichuan, Shaanxi, and Gansu provinces. They once lived in lowland areas, but farming, forest clearing, and other development now restrict giant pandas to the mountains.
Reproduction: Giant pandas reach breeding maturity between four and eight years of age. They may be reproductive until about age 20. Female pandas ovulate only once a year, in the spring. A short period of two to three days around ovulation is the only time she is able to conceive. Calls and scents draw males and females to each other.
Female giant pandas give birth between 95 and 160 days after mating. Although females may give birth to two young, usually only one survives. Giant panda cubs may stay with their mothers for up to three years before striking out on their own. This means a wild female, at best, can produce young only every other year; in her lifetime, she may successfully raise only five to eight cubs. The giant pandas’ naturally slow breeding rate prevents a population from recovering quickly from illegal hunting, habitat loss, and other human-related causes of mortality.
http://nationalzoo.si.edu/animals/giantpandas/pandafacts/
Physical traits: (1) Has a turquoise colored belly (2) Can range up to 3 feet long (3) Usually has a red and black striped body (4) Has a red tongue with black tips (5) Has scaly skin.
Animal behaviors: (1) Garter snakes tend to stay near water, into which they retreat if frightened or disturbed. When cornered, this snake will make a spirited defense, often biting, and if picked up will smear its holder with excrement and contents of the anal gland. (2) The garter snakes are the first snakes to appear in spring and the last to hibernate in fall.
Reproduction: They mate in the spring or autumn, and the females give birth to live young in July through August, numbering up to two dozen.
Common ecosystem: This locally endemic species is historically found throughout the San Francisco Peninsula from San Francisco to Santa Cruz County and possibly even at Lake Merced, across from the Zoo. Today, the wild population is limited mainly to a few known locations in coastal San Mateo County, though some have been found in the northwestern corner of Santa Cruz County and near San Francisco International Airport.
Reason for endangerment: The many reasons of this snakes endangerment include - loss of habitat from agricultural, commercial and urban development, illegal collecting for the pet trade, the decline of the California red-legged frog (a main food item), the introduction of bullfrogs which prey on both San Francisco garter snakes and red-legged frogs, parasites, and possible hybridization from breeding with other subspecies of garter snake.
Animal behavior: (1) It catch insects with its mouth not its tongue (2) It yelps and chirps but doesn't croak.
Reproduction: the species is sexually monomorphic, males are believed to be the primary care providers, and may prepare "nests" that they guard for the eggs, secreting antimicrobial peptides onto them, to ensure successful embryonic development. Reproduction is fully terrestrial; tadpoles develop within gelatinous egg capsules, and upon hatching, tailed froglets crawl onto the male's back and are carried around for several weeks where they complete metamorphosis.
Common ecosystem: This is a terrestrial (ground dwelling) species, occurring mostly at higher altitudes in forested ranges and more open sub-alpine scrub. Archey’s frog occupies a broad range of forest environments and is not closely associated with watery habitats such as lakes, ponds or streams.
Reasons for endangerment: Habitat reduction – Since humans arrived more than three species have been lost. By turning our forests into farmland and cities, we no doubt left our frogs with no place to live.
Predators – Rats and mosquito fish prey on Archey’s frogs.
Diseases – The chytrid fungus damages the frog’s skin which it uses to absorb moisture and breathe. Once it developed the fungus, it will die very quickly afterwards.
Climate Change – We don’t know how climate change will affect our frogs but it is thought the change in temperature may affect their breeding and because they like cool forests they might also lose habitat .
Animal behaviors: (1) While on the breeding grounds, the Kirtland’s warbler has been observed feeding on moths, caterpillars, adult ant lions, sawfly adults and larvae, grasshopper nymphs, spanworms, horseflies, deerflies, crickets, centipedes, and numerous other insects and larvae (2) It forages primarily on the ground and at midlevels in vegetation. Probing and hover-gleaning are other methods employed by this species for foraging.
Reproduction: They are loosely colonial and breed in their second year. Adult
males return to their breeding colonies although first year birds disperse widely. These birds are normally monogamous, however, some polygyny has been noted. Approximately half of all returning birds mate with the same individual in subsequent years Males are the first to arrive on the breeding grounds, and pair bonding begins within a week of the females’ arrival. Nests are constructed between
mid-May and early June. Female Kirtland’s warblers construct a shallow cup
nest directly on the ground over a 4 to 8 day period. Nests are usually well
concealed by ground cover or low hanging branches. Nests are only used once
Egg laying occurs from late-May to mid-July with a clutch size of three to
five eggs. Incubation is undertaken by the female, begins the day before the
clutch is complete, and takes 13 to 16 days. The male feeds the female during
incubation Hatching is fairly synchronous, with all chicks
emerging within 24 hours. Females mainly brood the chicks, and the male
brings food to both the female and the young. Fledging occurs 9 days after
hatching, with the entire clutch fledging almost simultaneously. Parents care
for the young up to 44 days after fledging, however the young appear to be
capable of survival at 23 days post-fledging. This species may occasionally
double brood, however, survival rate of the second brood is low
The number of fledglings produced per pair, per year, varies, but is usually
2.2 in good years. The probability of survival from egg to fledging is 0.32
under ideal conditions (e.g. without cowbird parasitism). Adult survivorship
from year to year has been estimated at 65 percent. The average lifespan for
adult birds is 2 years; the oldest recorded ages are 8 and 9 years for a female
and male, respectively
Both the parents and the young apparently leave the jack pine habitat after
July, as few of the birds have ever been observed there in August -- http://www.fws.gov/verobeach/MSRPPDFs/Kirtlandswarbler.pdf.
Common ecosystem: The very specific habitat requirements of this species are the main cause of its threatened status. Despite nesting on the ground, Kirtland’s warbler will only nest amongst 9 – 13 year old jack pines taller stands are abandoned for a new site. Ninety percent of these birds nest in the drainage area of a single stream, as they require the well-drained soil type found there, known as Grayling sands. They winter in low scrub, moving to higher shrubs to roost at night.
Reasons for endangerment: This species is heavily dependent on an extremely specialised and limited habitat which was originally maintained through regular, natural forest fires, providing a constant supply of young jack pines. However, white human settlers cleared much of this habitat and reduced the likelihood of forest fires. Initially, Kirtland’s warbler benefited from this action, but the brood-parasitic brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) also thrived. The brown-headed cowbird lays an egg in the nest of Kirtland’s warbler, removing one of the warbler’s eggs, and tricking it into raising a cowbird as its own. Compounding this problem, the cowbird chick hatches before the warbler chicks and out-competes them for food. As a consequence, the breeding success of Kirtland’s warbler has declined dangerously.
http://www.arkive.org/kirtlands-warbler/dendroica-kirtlandii/
http://marinebio.org/species.asp?id=236
Animal behavior: (1) Atlantic bluefin tuna consume smaller fishes such as mackerel, herring, whiting, flying fishes, and mullet as well as squid, eels, and crustaceans. (2)They can dive to depths of 1,000 metres (550 fathoms).
Reproduction: Female bluefin are thought to produce up to 30 million eggs.
Atlantic bluefin tuna spawn in two widely separated areas. One spawning ground exists in the western Mediterranean, particularly in the area of the Balearic Islands. The other important spawning ground of the Atlantic bluefin is the Gulf of Mexico. Pop-up satellite tracking results appear to confirm in large measure the belief held by many scientists and fishermen that although bluefin that were spawned in each area may forage widely across the Atlantic, they return to the same area to spawn.
Atlantic bluefin group together in large concentrations to spawn, and at such times are highly vulnerable to commercial fishing. This is particularly so in the Mediterranean where the groups of spawning bluefin can be spotted from the air by light aircraft and purse seines directed to set around the schools.
The western and eastern populations of Atlantic bluefin tuna are thought to mature at different ages. It is thought that bluefin born in the east reach maturity a year or two earlier than those spawned in the west.
Common ecosystem: Atlantic bluefins live in subtropical and temperate waters of the North Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean, and Black Seas. Bluefins are highly migratory and limited numbers of individuals may cross the Atlantic in as little as 60 days and are widely distributed throughout the Atlantic and can be found from Newfoundland all the way to the coast of Brazil. They range in the eastern Atlantic as far north as Norway and down to northern West Africa. Bluefins tagged in the Bahamas have been captured in Norway as well as off the coast of Brazil. Bluefins in the South Atlantic belong to a distinct southern population, with known spawning areas south of Java, Indonesia. The bluefin is a pelagicexternal link, schooling fish. They tend to group together according to size.
Reasons for endangerment: Global appetites for fish, especially Japanese appetite for sushi, is the predominant threat to Atlantic bluefin. Bluefin aquaculture, which arose in response to declining wild stocks, has yet to achieve a sustainability, in part because it predominantly relies on harvesting and ranching juveniles rather than captive breeding. Despite some concern, assessments from the 2010 Deep Water Horizon Oil spill estimated that the population loss would not be significant, ranging from 0.4–4% of juveniles, which is within the range of annual variations.
Click here to watch a video of the bluefin tuna
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