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Anatomy and Physiology

Multiple Sclerosis
by

Sobia Hasan

on 15 November 2012

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Transcript of Anatomy and Physiology

Multiple Sclerosis DIAGNOSIS ETIOLOGY The nerve damage is caused by inflammation
Inflammation occurs when the body’s own immune cells attack the nervous system.
This can occur along any area of the brain, optic nerve, and spinal cord.
It is unknown what exactly causes this to happen. but the most common thought is that a virus or gene defect is to blame.
Environmental factors may play a role. You are more likely to get this condition if you have a family history of MS or live in a part of the world where MS is more common. MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS SIGNS SYMPTOMS PREVENTION There is no way to prevent MS from occurring, but by treating the disease properly you can prevent the disease from becoming fatal. PROGNOSIS TREATMENT SCREENING http://www.multiplesclerosis.com/us/about_ms.php video The nerves in the Central Nervous System are
surrounded by a protective fatty material called
myelin that helps nerve fibers conduct electrical impulses. DEFINITION When this nerve covering is damaged,
nerve signals slow down or stop. In MS,
it is thought that when the immune system attacks the CNS,
the myelin is damaged
forms dense, scar-like tissue called sclerosis. These scars occur in multiple places throughout the
Central Nervous System.
The scar tissue affects the way electrical impulses travel along the nerve fiber,
distorting and interrupting signals coming to and from the brain and spinal cord. • There is no cure
• To treat symptoms...
o Physical therapy to strengthen and make daily activity easier.
o If MS patient suffers from muscle stiffness, muscle spasms, fatigue, depression, or loss of control of bowel, medications will be given accordingly.
• To treat MS attacks…
o Steroids to reduce inflammation.
o Plasma exchange to segregate blood cells from plasma and is a last resort for MS patients who no longer respond to other treatments).
• To prevent progression of MS…
o Beta interferons slow down increasing symptoms patients experience the longer they have the disease.
o Glatiramer prevent the immune system from attacking the myelin sheeth.
o Fingolimod reduces severity or amount of attacks and reduces the chance of short-term disability. It traps the immune cells that attack the neurons in the lymph nodes.
o Natalizumab is an immunosuppressant drug that has many harmful and severe side effects and is only used as a last resort. How MS will progress is different for everyone who has it. Some patients might experience temporary symptoms or attacks that are constant. The majority of patients suffer from some type of neurological disability. MS is a progressive illness that can last from 30 to 40 years. There is no cure for MS, but there is several forms of therapy to help ease attacks. There are also medications that can help. MS is hard to diagnose because there isn't a specific way for a doctor to test if you have MS or not. The doctor has to use other strategies to determine if a person meets the criteria for a diagnosis of MS. Strategies include, medical history, MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) can be used to detect the presence of MS plaques or scarring, evoked potentials (EP) recordings of the nervous system's electrical response to sensory pathways, because of damgages of the myelin, EPs can provide evidence of scarring alone the nerve pathways, and cerbrospinal fluid analysis, detects the levels of certain immune system proteins and the presence of oligoclonal bands. These are just tests to see if there is any evidence of MS. Although multiple sclerosis (MS) is a very hard degenerative disease to diagnose, if it's caught at an early stage, it can be stopped from progressing any further. Signs such as fatigue, rapid eye movement, abnormal pupil movements, lack of mobility, and the deterioration of any nervous system function can be used to determine whether or not a patient has MS. Multiple Sclerosis is a disease that is based mainly on the symptoms that an individual may have. The most common symptoms in MS patients include a numbness or weakness on one or more extremities, a tingling or pain that can occur in one or more body parts, dizziness, depression, fatigue, the impairment of motor skills such balance and coordination, and the weakening of speech skills
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