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Transcript of Sense Investigation
tight junctions. The apical surface contains both channels and G-protein-coupled receptors
that are activated by chemical stimuli. The basolateral surface contains voltage-gated Na+, K+, and Ca2+ channels, as well as all the machinery for synaptic transmission mediated by serotonin. Also shown are the relevant second messenger systems and intracellular compartments that store Ca2+. The increase in intracellular Ca2+ either by the activation of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels or via the release from intracellular stores causes synaptic vesicles to fuse and release their transmitter onto receptors on primary sensory neurons. Transduction
of Taste The four common tastes are sweet, sour, bitter, and salty. A fifth taste, called umami, results from tasting glutamate (present in MSG). The tongue has many nerves that help detect and transmit taste signals to the brain. Because of this, all parts of the tongue can detect these four common tastes; the commonly described “taste map” of the tongue doesn’t really exist. Form & Function of the Tongue Basic Facts: Sense Organs: Taste buds are designed to keep us alive. “The purpose of our ability to
distinguish tastes is survival,” says Trey Wilson, DDS, a New York City–based
dentist. “Taste buds tell your brain whether or not to swallow what’s already in your
mouth.” According to Dr. Bartoshuk, infants are born loving sweet and hating bitter,
because natural sugar is brain fuel, while bitter is the sensory cue for poison. “The taste system evolved to protect a baby who hasn’t learned anything about what is good and bad for himself yet,” she explains. Additionally, sodium is a mineral that’s essential for making our muscles and nerves work, thus many people’s cravings for salty snacks. Taste and flavor are not the same thing. Taste is what your
taste buds pick up: sweet, salty, sour, bitter and potentially umami
(the fifth savory taste). Flavor is a combination of taste plus smell,
specifically "retronasal olfaction," which is how your brain registers scent
when you eat something. It is the scent message from eating that combines
with taste to create flavor. However, according to Dr. Bartoshuk, the scent message from smelling with your nose is not involved with flavor at all (your brain knows the difference between the two). Basic Facts: Not everyone has the same amount of taste buds.
According to Nicholas Bower, MD, district medical director
at MedExpress, the average adult has between 2,000 and 10,000 taste buds. People who have more than 10,000 are considered to be "supertasters" because they taste things more intensely. “Research has shown that supertasters don’t like vegetables very much because they taste bitterness so intensely,” says Dr. Bartoshuk. “They also may find very sweet desserts, like crème brûlée, to be over-the-top sugary.” Basic Facts: Medications, smoking, not getting enough of the right
vitamins, injury to the head, brain tumors, chemical exposure,
and the effects of radiation can cause taste disorders and loss of taste all together. Basic Facts: Those bumps you see on your tongue when you say “ahh”? They
aren’t taste buds. “Those round projections are called fungiform
papillae and each has an average of six taste buds buried inside its surface tissue,” says Linda Bartoshuk, PhD, director of human research
at the University of Florida Center for Smell and Taste. Specialized taste receptors inside the taste buds allow us to distinguish sweet, salty, sour and bitter—and a possible fifth taste called umami, which has a savory element––by sending a message to the brain. And you don’t just have taste buds on your tongue—they’re everywhere, from the roof of your mouth to your throat and stomach. Basic Facts: Basic Facts: Basic Facts: Brigit Wingert
4th Hour IB Psych Sense of Taste 1. Your Sense ofTaste. (n.d.). In Oracle Think Quest. Retrieved September 21, 2012, from http://library.thinkquest.org/3750/taste/taste.html Babies have taste buds not only on their tongues, but
also on the sides and roof of their mouth. Because of the
extra taste bud, babies are more sensitive to different foods. As they grow, the taste buds begin to disappear from the sides and roof of the mouth, leaving taste buds mostly on your tongue. The chemical senses include taste and smell. The experience
of taste occurs when the taste buds in your mouth respond to
substances dissolved in saliva. The four basic tastes are salty, sweet, sour and bitter. 2. Greene, A. (n.d.). 7 Things You Didn't Know About Your Taste Buds. In Women's Day. Retrieved September 21, 2012, from http://www.womansday.com/health-fitness/7-things-you-didnt-know-about-your-taste-buds-119709 3. Taste and Smell. (n.d.). In University of Conneticut Health Center. Retrieved September 22, 2012, from http://uconntasteandsmell.uchc.edu/facts/index.html The receptors for taste, called taste buds, are situated chiefly in the tongue, but
they are also located in the roof of the mouth and near the pharynx. They are able to detect four
basic tastes: salty, sweet, bitter, and sour. The tongue also can detect a sensation called "umami"
from taste receptors sensitive to amino acids. Generally, the taste buds close to the tip of the tongue are
sensitive to sweet tastes, whereas those in the back of the tongue are sensitive to bitter tastes. The taste
buds on top and on the side of the tongue are sensitive to salty and sour tastes. At the base of each taste bud
there is a nerve that sends the sensations to the brain. The sense of taste functions in coordination with the sense
of smell. The number of taste buds varies substantially from individual to individual, but greater numbers increase sensitivity. Women, in general, have a greater number of taste buds than men. As in the case of color blindness, some people are insensitive to some tastes. 4. Zamora, A. (2012). In Anatomy and Structure of Human Sense Organs. Retrieved September 23, 2012, from http://www.scientificpsychic.com/workbook/chapter2.htm Works Cited There are two cranial nerves that innervate the tongue and are used for taste: the facial nerve
(cranial nerve VII) and the glossopharyngeal nerve (cranial nerve IX). The facial nerve innervates the
anterior (front) two-thirds of the tongue and the glossopharyngeal nerve innervates that posterior
(back) one-third part of the tongue. Another cranial nerve (the vagus nerve, X) carries taste information
from the back part of the mouth. The cranial nerves carry taste information into the brain to a part of the
brain stem called the nucleus of the solitary tract. From the nucleus of the solitary tract, taste information
goes to the thalamus and then to the cerebral cortex. Like information for smell, taste information also
goes to the limbic system (hypothalamus and amygdala). Another cranial nerve (the trigeminal nerve, V) also innervates the tongue, but is not used for taste. Rather, the trigeminal nerve carries information related to touch, pressure, temperature and pain. Pathway From Tongue
to Brain 5. (n.d.). In WebMD: Oral Care. Retrieved September 20, 2012, from http://www.webmd.com/oral-health/picture-of-the-tongue The tongue is a muscular organ in the mouth. The tongue is covered with moist, pink
tissue called mucosa. Tiny bumps called papillae give the tongue its rough texture. Thousands of taste buds cover the surfaces of the papillae. Taste buds are collections of nerve-like cells that connect to nerves running into the brain. The tongue is anchored to the mouth by webs of tough tissue and mucosa. The tether holding down the front of the tongue is called the frenum. In the back of the mouth, the tongue is anchored into the hyoid bone. The tongue is vital for chewing and swallowing food, as well as for speech. Unique Experiments 6. (n.d.). In Neuroscience for Kids: Taste. Retrieved September 23, 2012, from http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/tasty.html Unique Taste
Experiment Though this
experiment may not
seem overly scientific, it shows how our sense of taste effects our whole body. It shows how the sense of taste, combined with sight and smell, travels to the brain, then flows through the body. This video also shows how taste can relate to sights and sounds around us, such as the music the DJ produced from Alex's heartbeat. There are many other simple taste experiments. A participant can be blind folded and given headphones with loud music then must eat different foods. When relying on only their sense of many cannot distinguish the difference between egg yoke and potato.
*bad language ( sorry) Taste version can be a conditioned response to a certain food. The
study of conditioned taste aversions has invigorated new theory and
research on drug conditioning and addictions, as well as on conditioned immunity. There has also been a substantial amount of recent research exploring the neural substrates of conditioned taste aversion--its neuroanatomy, pharmacology, and role in the molecular and cellular basis of plasticity. Basically, when a person ingests something that harms their body, they get an immediate dislike to the substance. The sight, smell, and obviously taste, repel the person away. This could have developed to protect the body from harmful substances. Theories Evolution of Taste Initially, the sense of taste was developed to detect the difference between bitterness and poison. From an evolutionary perspective it is no accident that there are so many different types of receptor sites on bitter receptor cells and that most of the chemicals they bind are either poisonous to us or chemically similar to poisons. The animals that didn't evolve enough to determine the differences dies, and natural selection took over. As the animals with good taste receptors thrived, they gained more and taste eventually evolved into our intricate sense of taste. 7. Gray, P. (n.d.). Genetic and Evolutionary Foundations of Behavior. In Psychology 6th Edition. Retrieved September 23, 2012, from http://ebooks.bfwpub.com/gray6e.php 1. Do all people/animals experience taste the same way? Do all creatures have the same receptors and flavor detectors? Questions Left Unanswered Brigit Wingert
5(A) IB Psych
Sense and Perception
Project The End 8. Reilly, S., & Schachtman, T. R. (2009). Conditioned Taste Aversion (Vol. 1). New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved September 22, 2012, from http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780195326581.do 2. If someone loses the ability to smell and/or see, can they distinguish the differences between foods better or worse than those of us who have all five sense? In the Hell's Kitchen video the chefs were almost handicapped without their sight and hearing. If you grow accustomed to becoming blind and deaf does the taste sense intensify?